S: WHO – http://www.who.int/zoonoses/diseases/en/ (last access: 29 October 2016); Mednet – http://www.medicinenet.com/diseases_and_conditions/alpha_a.htm (last access: 19 January 2016).
N: 1. early 14c., “discomfort, inconvenience,” from Old French desaise “lack, want; discomfort, distress; trouble, misfortune; disease, sickness,” from des- “without, away” (see dis-) + aise “ease” (see ease). Sense of “sickness, illness” in English first recorded late 14c.; the word still sometimes was used in its literal sense early 17c.
2. A harmful deviation from the normal structural or functional state of an organism. A diseased organism commonly exhibits signs or symptoms indicative of its abnormal state. Thus, the normal condition of an organism must be understood in order to recognize the hallmarks of disease. Nevertheless, a sharp demarcation between disease and health is not always apparent.
The study of disease is called pathology. It involves the determination of the cause (etiology) of the disease, the understanding of the mechanisms of its development (pathogenesis), the structural changes associated with the disease process (morphological changes), and the functional consequences of these changes. Correctly identifying the cause of a disease is necessary to identifying the proper course of treatment.
Humans, animals, and plants are all susceptible to diseases of some sort. However, that which disrupts the normal functioning of one type of organism may have no effect on the other types.
3. Disease is the pathological process, most often physical as in throat infection, or cancer of the bronchus, sometimes undetermined in origin, as in schizophrenia. The quality which identifies disease is some deviation from a biological norm. Illness is the patient’s experience of ill health, sometimes when no disease can be found. Sickness is the role negotiated with society. Marinker goes on to observe that a sizeable minority of patients who regularly consult general practitioners, particularly for repeat prescriptions, suffer from none of these modes of ill health.
- Adj.: common | obscure, rare | dangerous, serious | mild | chronic | acute | degenerative | deadly, fatal, incurable, killer, terminal | curable | preventable | communicable, contagious, infectious | non-communicable | congenital, hereditary, inherited | childhood | tropical | insect-borne, water-borne | occupational | bowel, (coronary) heart, liver, etc. | mental | sexually transmitted, social, venereal patients suffering from venereal disease | circulatory, respiratory | Alzheimer’s, Crohn’s, etc.
- Quant.: outbreak.
- Verb + disease: have, suffer from | catch, contract, get | die from/of | the risk of disease | the spread of (a) | the symptoms of a disease, the treatment for/of a disease | cause | carry, pass on, spread, transmit | diagnose | treat | combat, fight | control, manage | cure | prevent | eradicate, stamp out, wipe out.
- Disease + verb: spread | afflict sb, strike sb | kill sb.
- Prep. with a/the ~ the number of people with this disease | ~ of a disease of the digestive system.
- Phrases: a cure for a disease, the incidence of (a) disease the overall incidence of disease in the world | a patient with/sufferer from a disease Sufferers from Alzheimer’s disease can’t cope at home. | resistance to disease.
S: 1. OED – http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=disease&searchmode=none (last access: 21 October 2014); DORLAND p. 527. 2. EncBrit – http://global.britannica.com/science/disease (last access: 21 October 2014). 3. http://old.fk.ub.ac.id/id/filedownload/materikuliah/kedokteran/ReadingPart.1-Disease_illness_sickness_health_healing.and.wholeness.pdf (last access: 21 October 2014). 4. OD – http://oxforddictionary.so8848.com/search1?word=disease (last access: 3 June 2015).
CR: acatalasemia, acme, alcoholism, altitude sickness, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, anomaly, COVID-19, cryoglobulinemia, contagion, disorder, endometriosis, fever, first aid, glaucoma, glomerulonephritis, health, Huntington’s chorea, incidence, infectious disease, minor ailment, overweight, ozena, pain, pneumothorax, salmonellosis, sick person, side effect, strain, syndrome, therapy, sarcoidosis, tsutsugamushi disease.