S: NCBI – http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3375812/ (last access: 30 July 2014); NHS – https://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/national-ciprofloxacin-pgd-initial-supply-under-12-tularemia-180219.docx (last access: 3 March 2020).
N: 1. Acute infectious disease resembling plague, but much less severe. It was described in 1911 among ground squirrels in Tulare county, California (from which the name is derived), and was first reported in humans in the United States in 1914. The causative agent is the gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. The disease is primarily one of animals; human infections are incidental. It occurs naturally in many types of wildlife.
2. Tularemia occurs throughout North America, many parts of Europe, the former Soviet Union, the Peoples Republic of China, and Japan, primarily in rabbits, rodents, and humans. The disease is transmitted by the bites of deerflies, fleas, and ticks; by contact with contaminated animals; and by ingestion of contaminated food or water.
3. Clinical manifestations vary depending on the route of introduction and the virulence of the agent. Most often, an ulcer is exhibited at the site of introduction, together with swelling of the regional lymph nodes and abrupt onset of fever, chills, weakness, headache, backache, and malaise.
S: 1. EncBrit – http://global.britannica.com/science/tularemia (last access: 29 July 2015). 2 & 3. ttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3375812/ (last access: 30 July 2014).
S: GDT (last access: 29 July 2015); WHO – https://www.who.int/csr/delibepidemics/tularaemia/en/ (last access: 3 March 2020).
SYN: 1. deer-fly disease, deer-fly fever, Pahvant Valley fever, Pahvant Valley plague. 2. rabbit fever, Francis’ disease, Ohara’s disease.
S: 1. TERMIUM PLUS (last access: 29 July 2015); GDT (last access: 29 July 2015). 2. TERMIUM PLUS (last access: 29 July 2015).