S: JHM – https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/endometriosis (last access: 16 February 2021); NCBI – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK567777/ (last access: 17 August 2021).
N: 1. “lining membrane of the uterus,” 1882, medical Latin, from Greek endo– + Greek mētra “uterus,” related to mētēr “mother”, also from Ancient Greek -ωσις (-ōsis, “state, abnormal condition, or action”), from -όω (-óō) stem verbs + -σις (-sis).
2. Endometriosis is the presence of tissue resembling endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity, which induces a chronic inflammatory reaction.
3. Symptoms of endometriosis can include:
-Pain. This is the most common symptom. Women with endometriosis may have many kinds of pain. These include:
– Very painful menstrual cramps. The pain may get worse over time.
– Chronic (long-term) pain in the lower back and pelvis
– Pain during or after sex. This is usually described as a “deep” pain and is different from pain felt at the entrance to the vagina when penetration begins.
– Intestinal pain.
– Painful bowel movements or pain when urinating during menstrual periods. In rare cases, you may also find blood in your stool or urine.
– Bleeding or spotting between menstrual periods. This can be caused by something other than endometriosis.
– Infertility, which can affect 50 percent of those with the condition.
– Stomach (digestive) problems, (diarrhea, constipation, bloating, or nausea, especially during menstrual periods).
Also, there can have complications include:
– Increased risk of developing ovarian cancer or endometriosis-associated adenocarcinoma.
– Ovarian cysts
– Intestinal and bladder complications
4. The exact cause of endometriosis is unknown, but there are several theories that explain how and why endometriosis happens. Retrograde menstruation is one popular theory of its origin in which blood and tissue from a woman’s uterus travel through the fallopian tubes into the abdominal cavity during her period.
Another theory of endometriosis origin is called coelomic metaplasia, in which cells in the body outside of the uterus can undergo changes to become cells that line the uterus. This is a common explanation for endometriosis at unusual sites like the thumb or knee. Another possible explanation for endometriosis in locations far from the uterus is that cells from the lining of the uterus travel through blood vessels or the lymphatic system, thereby reaching other distant organs or body areas. Endometriosis can also spread at the time of surgery. For example, a woman with endometriosis that undergoes a cesarean section could inadvertently have endometriosis implant in the abdominal incision so that she develops endometriosis in the scar from the surgery. Endometriosis is much more common if a close relative also has the disease, so there may also be genes that influence endometriosis.
5. Endometriosis can happen in any girl or woman who has menstrual periods, but it is more common in women in their 30s and 40s.
You might be more likely to get endometriosis if you have:
– Never had children;
– Menstrual periods that last more than seven days;
– Short menstrual cycles (27 days or fewer);
– A health problem that blocks the normal flow of menstrual blood from your body during your period.
S: 1. OED – https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=endometrium (last access: 16 February 2021); Wiktionary – https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/-osis#English (last access: 16 February 2021). 2. Griffith, V. A. S. – https://bit.ly/3uWqNRp (last access: 3 March 2021). 3&5. OWH – https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/endometriosis (last access: 16 February 2021). 4. UCLAHealth – https://www.uclahealth.org/obgyn/endometriosis (last access: 16 February 2021).
SYN: adenomyosis externa, endometriosis externa.
S: TERMIUM PLUS – https://www.btb.termiumplus.gc.ca/tpv2alpha/alpha-eng.html?lang=eng&i=1&srchtxt=endometriosis&codom2nd_wet=1#resultrecs (last access: 16 February 2021)