N: 1. 1590s, from Latin rabies “madness, rage, fury,” related to rabere “be mad, rave” (see rage (v.)). Sense of “extremely fatal infectious disease causing madness in dogs” was a secondary meaning in Latin. Known hydrophobia in humans.
2. rabies, also called hydrophobia or lyssa, acute, ordinarily fatal, viral disease of the central nervous system that is usually spread among domestic dogs and wild carnivorous animals by a bite. All warm-blooded animals, including humans, are susceptible to rabies infection. The virus, a rhabdovirus, is often present in the salivary glands of rabid animals and is excreted in the saliva; thus, the bite of the infected animal introduces the virus into a fresh wound. Under favourable conditions, the virus propagates along nerve tissue from the wound to the brain and becomes established in the central nervous system. After a time it spreads via nerves to the salivary glands, where it frequently produces a foaming at the mouth. The disease develops most often between four and six weeks after infection, but the incubation period may vary from 10 days to eight months.
3. Rabies virus travels quickly in a bitten animal (e.g., raccoons, skunks, bats, foxes, dogs, and cats, among other smaller animals) from the bite to the central nervous system.
4. Rabies is a zoonotic disease (a disease that is transmitted to humans from animals) that is caused by a virus. The disease affects domestic and wild animals, and is spread to people through close contact with infectious material, usually saliva, via bites or scratches.
- fatal, severe, symptoms of, to be spread by, to be transmitted by, to transmit.
6. Cultural Interrelation: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) suspected that the agent that caused rabies was a microbe (the agent was later discovered to be a virus, a nonliving entity).
S: 1. OED – http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=rabies&searchmode=none (last access: 4 September 2014). 2 & 3. EncBrit. 4. WHO – http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs099/en/ (last acces: 9 December 2013). 5. http://www.who.int/rabies/en/; http://kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/rabies.html (last access: 9 June 2015). 6. https://www.pasteur.fr/fr/institut-pasteur/espace-presse/documents-presse/la-rage-dossier-presse/louis-pasteur-et-la-vaccination-contre-la-rage (last access: 28 July 2014); EncBrit – http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/445964/Louis-Pasteur/281417/Vaccine-development (last access: 5 April 2015).
SYN: 1. hydrophobia. 2. hydrophobia, lyssa. 3. hydrophobia (obsolete), lyssa (obsolete), lytta (obsolete).
S: 1. WHO – http://www.who.int/rabies/en/ (last acces: 9 December 2013), TERMIUMPLUS. 2. EncBrit. 3. GDT.