GC: n

S: NCBI – (last access: 17 August 2021); NHS – (last access: 17 August 2021).

N: 1. 1821, from French pneumothorax (1803), coined by French physician Jean Marc Gaspard Itard (1774-1838) from Greek pneumon “lung”.
2. Pneumothorax is defined by the presence of air in the pleural space, which is the ordinarily tiny space between the visceral and parietal layers of the pleura.
3. Spontaneous pneumothoraxes are divided into two types: primary, which occurs in the absence of known lung disease, and secondary, which occurs in someone with underlying lung disease.
Traumatic pneumothorax occurs when the chest wall is pierced, such as when a stab wound or gunshot wound allows air to enter the pleural space.
4. It is usually caused by an injury to the chest, such as a broken rib or puncture wound. It may also occur suddenly without an injury. Additionally, it  can result from damage to the lungs caused by conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, cystic fibrosis, and pneumonia.

S: 1. OED – (last access 19 February 2021). 2. Pollack Jr, C. V. – (last access: 2 April 2021). 3. Zarogoulidis, P.- (last access: 2 April 2021). 4. OSMC – (last access: 2 April 2021).


CR: disease