S: WHO – http://www.who.int/ith/diseases/lyme/en/ (last access: 21 November 2014); MAYO – http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/lyme-disease/basics/definition/con-20019701 (last access: 12 November 2014); DORLAND.
N: 1. Other eponyms relate to geography. For example, Lyme disease is named for the Connecticut town where a number of children suffered what was believed to be a new form of arthritis when reported in the 1975. But Lyme disease is the same condition that European doctors reported much earlier.
2. Lyme Borreliosis (Lyme disease): Cause: the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi, of which there are several different serotypes. Early skin lesions have an expanding ring form, often with a central clear zone. Fever, chills, myalgia and headache are common. Meningeal involvement may follow. Central nervous system and other complications may occur weeks or months after the onset of illness.
3. There are foci of Lyme borreliosis in forested areas of Asia, north-western, central and eastern Europe, and the USA. Avoid tick-infested areas and exposure to ticks. If a bite occurs, remove the tick as soon as possible.
4. The signs and symptoms of Lyme disease vary and usually affect more than one system. The skin, joints and nervous system are affected most often. Therefore we can find early signs and symptoms, later signs and symptoms and less common signs and symptoms.
- Early signs and symptoms. A small, red bump may appear at the site of the tick bite. This small bump is normal after a tick bite and doesn’t indicate Lyme disease.The rash, called erythema migrans, is one of the hallmarks of Lyme disease. Some people develop this rash at more than one place on their bodies. Flu-like symptoms: fever, chills, fatigue, body aches and a headache may accompany the rash.
- Later signs and symptoms. In some people, the rash may spread to other parts of the body and, several weeks to months after you’ve been infected, you may experience joint pain and you may develop bouts of severe joint pain and swelling. Your knees are especially likely to be affected, but the pain can shift from one joint to another. Neurological problems: weeks, months or even years after you were infected, you may experience inflammation of the membranes surrounding your brain (meningitis), temporary paralysis of one side of your face (Bell’s palsy), numbness or weakness in your limbs, and impaired muscle movement.
- Less common signs and symptoms. Several weeks after infection, some people develop: Heart problems, such as an irregular heartbeat. Heart problems rarely last more than a few days or weeks.Eye inflammation. Liver inflammation (hepatitis). Severe fatigue.
5. Public Health England estimates there are 2,000 to 3,000 cases of Lyme disease in England and Wales each year, and that about 15% of cases occur while people are abroad.
6. There is currently no vaccine to prevent Lyme disease. In 2002, a vaccine was introduced in America but was later withdrawn because of concerns over side effects. The best way of preventing Lyme disease is to avoid being bitten when you are in wooded or heath areas known to have a high tick population.
7. If you do find a tick on your or your child’s skin, remove it by gently gripping it as close to the skin as possible, preferably using fine-toothed tweezers, and pull steadily away from the skin. Never use a lit cigarette end, a match head or essential oils to force the tick out.
8. Lyme disease in its late stages can trigger symptoms similar to those of fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue syndrome. This is known as chronic Lyme disease, although more research into this form of Lyme disease is needed.
S: 1. http://partners.nytimes.com/library/national/science/health/030700hth-doctors.html (last access: 21 November 2014). 2 & 3. WHO – http://www.who.int/ith/diseases/lyme/en/ (last access: 12 November 2014). 4. MAYO – http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/lyme-disease/basics/symptoms/con-20019701 (last access: 12 November 2014). 5, 6, 7 & 8. NHS – http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Lyme-disease/Pages/Introduction.aspx (last access: 12 November 2014).
SYN: 1. Lyme Borreliosis. 2. Lyme arthritis.
S: 1. WHO – http://www.who.int/ith/diseases/lyme/en/ (last access: 21 November 2014). 2. COSNAUTAS.