S: SDir – https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0301008296000275 (last access: 19 November 2020); ChrisJS – http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.1010.2563&rep=rep1&type=pdf (last access: 19 November 2020).
N: 1. From the word “methylene” [hydrocarbon radical occurring in many compounds, 1835, from French méthylène from Greek methy “wine” + hylē “wood” (which is of uncertain etymology) + Greek name-forming element –ene; so called because it was detected in wood alcohol], the combining form “dioxy-” (containing two oxy groups) and the word “amphetamine” (“synthetic heart-stimulating drug,” 1938, contracted from alphamethyl-phenethylamine).
– Chemical formula: C11H15NO2.
– CAS number: 42542-10-09.
2. Synthetic drug derived from amphetamine. It produces effects such as feelings of mental stimulation, decreased anxiety, and enhanced sensory perception.
3. MDMA in tablet form is almost always used orally (ingested), but the powdered form could also be snorted, inhaled or injected, although the latter route is rarely observed in the context of recreational ecstasy use. MDMA once found limited use in psychiatric counselling, but its therapeutic use is now rare.
4. MDMA increases the activity of three brain chemicals:
– Dopamine—produces increased energy/activity and acts in the reward system to reinforce behaviors.
– Norepinephrine—increases heart rate and blood pressure, which are particularly risky for people with heart and blood vessel problems.
– Serotonin—affects mood, appetite, sleep, and other functions. It also triggers hormones that affect sexual arousal and trust. The release of large amounts of serotonin likely causes the emotional closeness, elevated mood, and empathy felt by those who use MDMA.
5. Terminological disambiguation:
. 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine: form recommended by the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry).
. N,alpha-dimethyl-1,3-benzodioxole-5-ethanamine: CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) name.
The capital letters “N” and “S” must be italicized.
alpha: This word must be italicized or replaced by the corresponding Greek letter.
. Do not confuse with methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), which constitutes the parent drug of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).
. MDMA; MDMC: These might be in-house or non-recognized abbreviations; not to be used alone, to avoid any risk of confusion.
. Street names for MDMA include Ecstasy, Adam, XTC, hug, beans, and love drug.
S: 1. OED – https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=methylene; https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=amphetamine (last access: 22 November 2020); MW – https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/dioxy- (last access: 22 November 2020). 2. verywell – https://www.verywellmind.com/what-are-the-effects-of-ecstasy-mdma-63095 (last access: 19 November 2020); EMCDDA – https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/drug-profiles/mdma_en (last access: 19 November 2020). 3. EMCDDA – https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/drug-profiles/mdma_en (last access: 19 November 2020). 4. NIDA – https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/mdma-ecstasymolly (last access: 19 November 2020). 5. TERMIUM PLUS – https://www.btb.termiumplus.gc.ca/tpv2alpha/alpha-eng.html?lang=eng&i=1&srchtxt=methylenedioxymethamphetamine+&codom2nd_wet=1#resultrecs (last access: 22 November 2020).
SYN: MDMA, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy. (depending on context)
S: TERMIUM PLUS – https://www.btb.termiumplus.gc.ca/tpv2alpha/alpha-eng.html?lang=eng&i=1&srchtxt=methylenedioxymethamphetamine+&codom2nd_wet=1#resultrecs (last access: 22 November 2020); GDT – http://gdt.oqlf.gouv.qc.ca/ficheOqlf.aspx?Id_Fiche=8353613 (last access: 22 November 2020).