S: WHO – http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/druginformation/en/ (last access: 8 December 2015); WHO – http://www.who.int/topics/substance_abuse/en/ (last access: 8 December 2015); DRUGS – http://www.drugs.com/ (last access: 3 September 2014).
N: 1. Late 14c. (early 14c. in Anglo-French), “medicine, chemical ingredients,” from Old French droge “supply, stock, provision” (14c.), of unknown origin, perhaps from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German droge-vate “dry barrels,” or droge waere, literally “dry wares,” but specifically drugs and spices, with first element mistaken as word for the contents (see dry goods), or because medicines mostly consisted of dried herbs.
2. Compare Latin species, in Late Latin “wares,” then specialized to “spices” (French épice, English spice). The same source produced Italian and Spanish droga, Swedish drog.
3. Application to “narcotics and opiates” is late 19c., though association with “poisons” is 1500s. Druggie first recorded 1968. To be a drug on or in the market (mid-17c.) is of doubtful connection and may be a different word, perhaps a play on drag, which was sometimes drug c.1240-1800.
4. According to Dorland’s Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers, this term has four meanings:
- a chemical substance that affects the processes of the mind or body.
- any chemical compound used in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of disease or other abnormal condition.
- a substance used recreationally for its effects on the central nervous system, such as a narcotic.
- to administer a drug to.
5. What Is Drug Addiction?
Addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease that causes compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences to the addicted individual and to those around him or her. Although the initial decision to take drugs is voluntary for most people, the brain changes that occur over time challenge an addicted person’s self-control and hamper his or her ability to resist intense impulses to take drugs.
Fortunately, treatments are available to help people counter addiction’s powerful disruptive effects. Research shows that combining addiction treatment medications with behavioral therapy is the best way to ensure success for most patients. Treatment approaches that are tailored to each patient’s drug abuse patterns and any co-occurring medical, psychiatric, and social problems can lead to sustained recovery and a life without drug abuse.
6. Collocations (drug: illegal substance):
- Adj.: illegal | addictive, hallucinogenic | dangerous, hard heroin and other hard drugs | soft (= not considered very dangerous) | designer (= artificially produced).
- Verb + drug: inject.
- drug + noun: baron, pusher | cartel | misuse | drug/drugs charges, offence | squad | war.
- Phrases: drink and drugs the dangers of drink and drugs >.
S: 1 to 3. OED – http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=drug&searchmode=none (last access: 3 September 2014). 4. TFD – http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/drug (last access: 8 December 2015). 5. http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/understanding-drug-abuse-addiction (last access: 8 December 2015). 6. OD – http://oxforddictionary.so8848.com/search1?word=drug (last access: 8 December 2015).
CR: addiction, amphetamine, cocaine, drug addict, drug addiction, drug dealer, drug product, drug substance, drug trafficking, hallucinogen, heroin, LSD, medication, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, narcotic, narcotic (2), nicotine, opium, overdose, sleeping pill, xenobiotic.