S: NIH – https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugs-brains-behavior-science-addiction/drug-misuse-addiction (last access: 8 April 2020); NHS – https://www.nhs.uk/live-well/healthy-body/drug-addiction-getting-help/ (last access: 8 April 2020).
N: 1. 1600, “tendency, inclination, penchant” (a less severe sense now obsolete); 1640s as “state of being (self)-addicted” to a habit, pursuit, etc., from Latin addictionem (nominative addictio) “an awarding, a delivering up,” noun of action from past-participle stem of addicere “to deliver, award; devote, consecrate, sacrifice”. In the sense “compulsion and need to take a drug as a result of prior use of it” from 1906, in reference to opium (there is an isolated instance from 1779 with reference to tobacco).
2. A state of periodic or chronic intoxication, detrimental to the individual and to society, produced by the repeated consumption of a drug (natural or synthetic). Its characteristics include: (1) an overpowering desire or need (compulsion) to continue taking the drug and to obtain it by any means; (2) a tendency to increase the dose; (3) a psychic (psychological) and sometimes a physical dependence on the effects of the drug.
3. [In] 1964, the World Health Organization recommended a new standard that replaces both the term drug addiction and the term drug habituation with the term drug dependence.
S: 1. OED – https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=drug+addiction (last access: 29 December 2019). 2&3. TERMIUM PLUS – https://www.btb.termiumplus.gc.ca/tpv2alpha/alpha-eng.html?lang=eng&i=1&srchtxt=drug+addiction&index=alt&codom2nd_wet=1#resultrecs (last access: 6 April 2020).
SYN: drug dependence, drug dependency, drug habituation. (depending on context)
S: TERMIUM PLUS – https://www.btb.termiumplus.gc.ca/tpv2alpha/alpha-eng.html?lang=eng&i=1&srchtxt=drug+addiction&index=alt&codom2nd_wet=1#resultrecs (last access: 6 April 2020)