S: HODE – https://bit.ly/2KW781v (p. 26) (last access: 2 December 2020); ACAOUP – https://academic.oup.com/ijrl/article/1/3/285/1538451 (last access: 2 December 2020).
N: 1. – international (adj): Formed by the prefix “inter-” (from Latin inter “among, between, betwixt, in the midst of”, attested in the 15c) and the adjective “national” (attested in the 1950s which originates from Middle French national (16c., from Old French nacion), and also from nation + -al) “of or pertaining to a nation or a country regarded as a whole; established and maintained by the nation; peculiar to the whole people of a country”.
– protection (n): mid 14c., “shelter, defense; keeping, guardianship;” late 14c. as “that which protects,” from Old French proteccion “protection, shield” (12c.) and directly from Late Latin protectionem (nominative protectio) “a covering over,” noun of action from past participle stem of protegere “protect, cover in front,” from pro “before”.
2. International protection is the actions by the international community on the basis of international law, aimed at protecting the fundamental rights of a specific category of persons outside their countries of origin, who lack the national protection of their own countries.
3. According to Directive 2011/95/EU, “international protection” means the recognition by an EU State of a non-EU national or a stateless person as a refugee or as a person eligible for subsidiary protection.
4. Before a person can receive asylum, he/she must be recognised as a refugee or as a beneficiary of subsidiary protection. The current Qualification Directive of 2011 outlines the minimum standards for the qualification and status of third-country nationals or stateless persons as refugees or as persons who otherwise need international protection and the content of the protection granted. It also establishes the criteria for applicants to qualify for refugee status or subsidiary protection and defines the rights afforded to beneficiaries of these statuses, hence provisions on protection from refoulement, residence permits, travel documents, access to employment, access to education, social welfare, healthcare, access to accommodation, access to integration facilities, as well as specific provisions for children and vulnerable persons are also contained in the legislative instrument.
5. International protection in another country is granted as long as the authorities in their own State tolerate threats, or are unwilling or unable to provide effective protection. From the moment a person requests international protection, that person is protected by the principle of non-refoulement, a fundamental standard of human rights. According to this standard, no one can be deported, returned or extradited until their request for protection is resolved.
6. The European rule known as the “Dublin Regulation”, establishes that the first Member State of the European Union in which a person arrives, or the one that issued that person a visa or residence permit, shall be responsible for examining that person’s application for asylum. However, there are exceptions in certain cases involving family ties or issues of dependence. We recommend that you check with a lawyer if you have questions in this regard.
7. Rather than a synonym, subsidiary protection is a form of international protection that is granted to people who cannot return to their country of origin because they would face a real risk of suffering serious harm.
8. The types of serious harm that could give rise to subsidiary protection are as follows:
- Death penalty or the risk of physical execution
- Torture or inhuman or degrading treatment of an applicant in the country of origin
- Serious threats to the person’s life or integrity by reason of indiscriminate violence in situations of conflict.
9. Turkish aggressions towards its Kurdish minority are frequently in the news, and the number of human rights violations brought to the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) is rising. However, the ECHR is failing to take effective action in response to these cases, and human rights abuses are continuing. A text book example is seen by the actions of Turkey’s army when they turned the Kurdish city of Cizre into a ‘war zone’ where hundreds of civilians died and thousands of homes were destroyed. For this reason thousands of Kurds seek international proteccion as they meet the critera needed.
S: 1. OED – https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=inter-, https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=national, https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=protection (last access: 2 December 2020). 2 and 3. EC – https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/e-library/glossary/international-protection_en (last access: 2 December 2020). 4. EC – https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/asylum/refugee-status_en (last access: 2 December 2020). 5 to 8. UNHCR – https://help.unhcr.org/spain/en/solicitar-asilo-en-espana/el-asilo-y-otras-formas-de-proteccion-internacional (last access: 2 December 2020). 9. EC – https://ec.europa.eu/research/infocentre/article_en.cfm?artid=49702, ChannelDW – https://www.dw.com/en/unprecedented-destruction-of-kurdish-city-of-cizre/a-19265927 (last access: 2 December 2020).
CR: amnesty, assistance to refugees, asylum, asylum seeker, civil protection, crime against humanity, enforced disapparance, foreigner, gender-based violence, human rights, internally displaced people, international humanitarian law, political action, rape, refugee, safe area, safety, social services, stateless person, violation of human rights, war crime.