political action

GC: n

S: http://www.sais-jhu.edu/cmtoolkit/issues-in-practice/humanitarian-aid/dilemmas-political.htm (last access: 16 July 2012); http://www.co.portage.wi.us/groundwater/action/pol.htm (last access: 1 September 2014).

N: 1. – political (adj): 1550s, “pertaining to a polity, civil affairs, or government;” from Latin politicus “of citizens or the state” + -al. Meaning “taking sides in party politics” (usually pejorative) is from 1749. Political prisoner first recorded 1860; political science is from 1779 (first attested in Hume). Political animal translates Greek politikon zoon (Aristotle, “Politics,” I.ii.9) “an animal intended to live in a city; a social animal.”
– action (n): mid-14c., “cause or grounds for a lawsuit,” from Anglo-French accioun, Old French accion, action (12c.) “action; lawsuit, case,” from Latin actionem (nominative actio) “a putting in motion; a performing, a doing; public acts, official conduct; lawsuit, legal action” (source also of Spanish acción, Italian azione), noun of action from past participle stem of agere “to do” (from PIE root *ag- “to drive, draw out or forth, move”).
Meaning “active exertion, activity” is from late 14c. Sense of “something done, an act, deed” is late 14c. Meaning “military fighting” is from 1590s. Meaning “way in which (a firearm, etc.) acts” is from 1845. As a film director’s command, it is attested from 1923. Meaning “noteworthy or important activity” is from 1933, as in the figurative phrase a piece of the action (1966). Meaning “excitement” is recorded from 1968. In action “in a condition of effective operation” is from 1650s. Phrase actions speak louder than words is attested from 1731. Action-packed is attested from 1953, originally of movies.
2. Action designed to attain a purpose by the use of political power or by activity in political channels; specifically : such action by organized labor through recognized political means (as participation in party organization, in elections, and by lobbying) —contrasted with direct action.

S: 1. OED – http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=political+action (last access: 1 August 2017). 2. MW – https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/political%20action (last access: 1 August 2017).


CR: international protection, referendum.