GC: n

S: UNTERM – (last access: 2 February 2019); GOV.UK – (last access: 2 February 2019).

N: 1. 1650s, from immigrate (1620s, from Latin immigratum, past participle of imigrare “to remove, go into, move in,” from assimilated form of in- “into, in, on, upon”, see in- (2); + migrare “to move”, see migration; Related: Immigrated; immigrating) + -ion (suffix forming nouns of state, condition, or action from verbs, from Latin -ionem (nominative -io, genitive -ionis), sometimes via French -ion). As short for “immigration authorities,” from 1966.
2. immigration, process through which individuals become permanent residents or citizens of a new country. Historically, the process of immigration has been of great social, economic, and cultural benefit to states. The immigration experience is long and varied and has in many cases resulted in the development of multicultural societies; many modern states are characterized by a wide variety of cultures and ethnicities that have derived from previous periods of immigration.
3. In the post-World War II period, immigration was largely the result of the refugee movement following that war and, during the 1950s and ’60s, the end of colonization across Asia and Africa. Immigration from these areas to former imperial centres, such as the United Kingdom and France, increased. In the United Kingdom, for example, the 1948 British Nationality Act gave citizens in the former colonial territories of the Commonwealth (a potential figure of 800 million) the right of British nationality.
4. Immigrants and guest workers played a vital role in the rebuilding of Europe’s infrastructure after World War II by working in heavy industry, in health services, and in transport.
5. Collocations:

  1. coming to live in a country:
    • Adj.: illegal | large-scale, mass.
    • Verb + immigration:control, restrict.
    • Immigration + noun: control, law, policy, rules | authority, officer, official, service.
    • Prep.: ~ from There was a sudden increase in immigration from Eastern Europe.
  2. (also immigration control) at a port/airport:
    • Verb + immigration: go/pass through We landed at Heathrow and went through customs and immigration.
    • Immigration + noun: checks, formalities, procedures calls for tighter immigration procedures.

6. Cultural Interrelation: U.S. immigration before 1965.
The United States experienced major waves of immigration during the colonial era, the first part of the 19th century and from the 1880s to 1920.

S: 1. OED – (last access: 2 February 2019). 2 to 4. EncBrit – (last access: 2 February 2019). 5. OD – (last access: 2 February 2019). 6. HISTORY – (last access: 2 February 2019).


CR: alienage, asylee, asylum, boat people, emigrant, emigration, émigré, emigrant, exiled, exile, exodus, expatriate, expatriation, expellee, expulsion, forced migration, foreigner, immigrant, immigrated person, irregular migration, migrant, migration, refugee, repatriated person, repatriation, statelessness, stateless person, wetbacks.