forced migration
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GC: n

S: TAM – https://goo.gl/5QCmLX (page 211) (last access: 7 November 2018); IOM – https://www.iom.int/key-migration-terms (last access: 7 November 2018).

N: 1. – forced (adj): “not spontaneous or voluntary, strained, unnatural,” 1570s. The past-participle adjective from verb force (c. 1300, forcen, also forsen, “exert force upon (an adversary),” from Old French forcer “conquer by violence,” from force “strength, power, compulsion”. Related: forced, forcing).
– migration (n): 1610s, of persons, 1640s of animals, from Latin migrationem (nominative migratio) “a removal, change of abode, migration,” noun of action from past participle stem of migrare “to move from one place to another,” probably originally *migwros, from PIE *meigw- (source of Greek ameibein “to change”), from root *mei- “to change, go, move”.
2. The movements of refugees and internally displaced people (those displaced by conflicts) as well as people displaced by natural or environmental disasters, chemical or nuclear disasters, famine, or development projects.
3. Forced migrants often flee in large numbers and over a short time period to the nearest place to avoid danger.
4. Forced migration can be either on a permanent or temporary basis.
5. Forced migration is not a legal concept, and similar to the concept of ‘migration’, there is no universally accepted definition.
6. The study of forced migration is premised upon the distinction between forced migration and voluntary migration. The separation of these categories emerges largely from policy categories designed to distinguish between and prioritize the rights of different groups of people. Forced migration is often assumed to have a political basis, being based on flight from persecution or conflict; voluntary migration is generally assumed to be underpinned by economic motives. However, in practice, this distinction is problematic; it is not possible to distinguish sharply between volition and coercion, and they exist on a spectrum.

S: 1. OED – https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=force+migration (last access: 7 November 2018). 2. TERMIUM PLUS – http://bit.do/eArTP (last access: 7 November 2018). 3. OUP – http://bit.do/eArP8 (last access: 7 November 2018). 4. SAJSS – https://goo.gl/UGPznZ (last access: 7 November 2018). 5. UNHCR – https://goo.gl/j23yHX (last access: 7 November 2018). 6. FMGP – https://goo.gl/99qJx9 (page 4) (last access: 7 November 2018).

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CR: emigrant, emigration, exodus, immigrant, immigrated person, immigration, irregular migration, migrant, migration, refugees, statelessness, stateless person.