urobilinogen
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S: MT – http://medicaltreasure.com/urobilinogen-in-urine/ (last access: 18 November 2016); LTR – http://testresult.org/en/tests-description/urinalysis/bilirubin-urobilinogen-in-urine (last access: 18 November 2016).

N:1. 1753, from uro- (word-forming element meaning “urine,” from comb. form of Greek ouron “urine”) + -bilis (from Latin meaning “fluid secreted by the liver”) + the sufix -gen (from the Greek gennan, “to produce”).
2. The colour reaction of di-methyl-amido-benzaldehyde with metabolites in urine (especially with urobilinogen), was discovered and published by Paul Ehrlich 80 years ago. Ehrlich’s aldehyde reagent has also won importance in chromatography. The modern test-strip technique permits an easy and rapid examination for urobilinogen (and bilirubin).
3. Small amounts of urobilinogen are normally found in the freshly voided urine of a healthy individual which, if the urine is allowed to stand for long periods of time, oxidizes and transforms into urobilin. Urobilinogen is colorless, while urobilin is yellow. This is why urobilin-rich urine becomes darker if allowed to stand for long periods of time. The condition in which excessive amounts of urobilin are present in the urine is called urobilinogenuria. Urobilinogen is generated from bilirubin by enzymes, bacteria and cells of the lining of intestines which enter the bowels through the bile. In healthy individuals, urobilinogen is produced at a certain rate and is expelled from the body with feces and in small amounts with urine. Various diseases may enhance the production of urobilinogen causing its excessive clearance from the body; or urobilinogen production may decrease and urobilinogen will not be found in the urine. Elevated levels of urobilinogen are seen in all diseases causing an intensive decay of erythrocytes as the released hemoglobin is used to produce excessive amounts of bilirubin and then urobilinogen.
4. An increased urobilinogen concentration in urine is a sensitive index of liver dysfunction or hemolytic diseases. Urobilinogenuria is caused by e. g. virus hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, infections, poisonings, congestion or carcinoma of liver, hemolytic, and pernicious anemina, polycythemia and pathological state of the intestinal tract with an increased resorbence.
5. Stercobilinogen (fecal urobilinogen) is a chemical created by bacteria in the gut. It is made of broken-down hemoglobin. It is further processed to become the chemical that gives feces its brown color. The formula for stercobilinogen is C33H48N4O6.

S: 1. OED – http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=Urology; http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=bile&allowed_in_frame=0 (last access: 20 November 2016); SPD – http://www.macroevolution.net/medical-suffixes-f-g.html#suffix-dictionary (last access: 18 November 2016). 2. NCBI – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6753381 (last access: 18 November 2016). 3. LTR – http://testresult.org/en/tests-description/urinalysis/bilirubin-urobilinogen-in-urine (last access: 18 November 2016). 4. Macherey-Nagel – https://goo.gl/xCPD5u (last access: 18 November 2016). 5. LS – http://www.liquisearch.com/stercobilinogen (last access: 18 November 2016).

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CR: bacteria, bilirubin, urology.