S: WHO – http://www.who.int/topics/malaria/en/ (last access: 31 October 2013); DORLAND p. 1097.
N: 1. 1740, from Italian mal’aria, from mala aria, literally “bad air,” from mala “bad” (fem. of malo, from Latin malus; see mal-) + aria “air” (see air (n.1)). Probably first used by Italian physician Francisco Torti (1658-1741). The disease, now known to be mosquito-borne, once was thought to be caused by foul air in marshy districts. Replaced native ague.
2. Serious relapsing infection in humans, characterized by periodic attacks of chills and fever, anemia, splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen), and often fatal complications. It is caused by one-celled parasites of the genus Plasmodium that are transmitted to humans by the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes.
3. Malaria is caused by a parasite called Plasmodium, which is transmitted via the bites of infected mosquitoes. In the human body, the parasites multiply in the liver, and then infect red blood cells.
4. Cultural interrelation:
- Reality: With malaria, this pertains to a famous mummy. Hitherto the cause of death of the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun was a matter of speculation; however, according to a recent article in the JAMA, new evidence has been provided which suggests malaria as the cause of death.
- Fiction: We can mention the movie They Rode West (1954) directed by Phil Karlson and the novel The Calcutta Chromosome (1995), written by Amitav Ghosh.
S: 1. OED – http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=malaria&searchmode=none (last access. 4 September 2014); DORLAND p. 1097. 2. EncBrit (last access: 16 June 2015). 3. WHO – http://www.who.int/topics/malaria/en/ (last access: 31 October 2013). 4. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Tim_Sandle/publication/258842087_Pharaohs_and_Mummies_Diseases_of_Ancient_Egypt_and_Modern_Approaches/links/00b4952ca6ed0e01d1000000.pdf (last access: 12 June 2016); https://letterboxd.com/film/they-rode-west/ (last access: 2 May 2016); https://www.nytimes.com/books/97/09/14/reviews/970914.14saynort.html (last access: 16 June 2015).
S: DORLAND p. 1097; TERMIUM PLUS (last access: 16 June 2015); GDT (last access: 16 June 2015).
CR: artemisinin, chloroquine, malaria parasite, protozoa, protozoiasis.