GC: n

S: WHO – (last access: 12 October 2016); (last access: 12 October 2016).

N: 1. 1955, from lyso- (word-forming element indicating “loosening, dissolving, freeing,” before vowels lys-, from Greek lysis “a loosening,” from lyein “to loose, loosen”) + -some (word-forming element meaning “the body,” Modern Latin, from Greek soma “the body”). So called for “their richness in hydrolytic enzymes.”
2. Lysosome, subcellular organelle that is found in nearly all types of eukaryotic cells (cells with a clearly defined nucleus) and that is responsible for the digestion of macromolecules, old cell parts, and microorganisms. Each lysosome is surrounded by a membrane that maintains an acidic environment within the interior via a proton pump. Lysosomes contain a wide variety of hydrolytic enzymes (acid hydrolases) that break down macromolecules such as nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides.
3. A lysosome is basically a specialized vesicle that holds a variety of enzymes. The enzyme proteins are first created in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Those proteins are packaged in a vesicle and sent to the Golgi apparatus. The Golgi then does its final work to create the digestive enzymes and pinches off a small, very specific vesicle. That vesicle is a lysosome. From there the lysosomes float in the cytoplasm until they are needed. Lysosomes are single-membrane organelles.

S: 1. OED – (last access: 12 October 2016). 2. EncBrit – (last access: 12 October 2016). 3. (last access: 12 October 2016).


CR: autophagosome, autophagy.