intellectual disability

GC: n

S: WHO – (last access: 5 June 2019); NCBI – (last access: 5 June 2019).

N: 1. – intellectual (adj): late 14c., “grasped by the understanding” (rather than by the senses), from Old French intellectuel (13c.) and directly from Latin intellectualis “relating to the understanding,” from intellectus “discernment, understanding,” noun use of past participle of intelligere “to understand, discern”.
Sense of “characterized by a high degree of intellect” is from 1819. Meaning “appealing to or engaging the mental powers” is from 1834. Intellectual property “products of the intellect” is attested from 1845. Adjective formations in the sense “of or pertaining to the intellect” included intellective (early 15c.), intellectile (1670s).
– disability (n): 1570s, “want of power, strength, or ability,” from dis- + ability. Meaning “incapacity in the eyes of the law” is from 1640s. Related: Disabilities.
Disability implies deprivation or loss of power; inability indicates rather inherent want of power. (Century Dictionary)
2. A significant limitation both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behaviour as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills (and for which the onset is) before the age of 18.
3. oligophrenia: term used mostly in the medical field.
4. The term “mental retardation” has been replaced in law texts by “intellectual disability” issued by virtue of Federal Law (USA).

S: 1. OED – (last access: 5 June 2019). 2 & 3. TERMIUM PLUS – (last access: 5 June 2019). 4. GDT – (access: 5 June 2019).

SYN: intellectual developmental disorder, mental handicap, oligophrenia, mental deficiency (obsolete), mental retardation (avoid, pejorative).

S: TERMIUM PLUS – (last access: 5 June 2019)

CR: disability, impairment.