N: 1. c. 1300, “forced removal from one’s country,” from Old French exil, essil (12c.), from Latin exilium “banishment; place of exile”. From c. 1300 as “a banished person,” from Latin exsul, exul.
2. The state or a period of forced absence from one’s country or home. The state or a period of voluntary absence from one’s country or home.
3. Exile and banishment, prolonged absence from one’s country imposed by vested authority as a punitive measure. It most likely originated among early civilizations from the practice of designating an offender an outcast and depriving him of the comfort and protection of his group. Exile was practiced by the Greeks chiefly in cases of homicide, although ostracism was a form of exile imposed for political reasons. In Rome, exile (exsilium) arose as a means of circumventing the death penalty (see capital punishment). Before a death sentence was pronounced, a Roman citizen could escape by voluntary exile.
S: 1. OED – https://bit.ly/2RTPxtU (last access: 10 February 2017). 2. MW – https://bit.ly/2WmFkof (last access: 10 February 2017). 3. EncBrit – https://bit.ly/2FNBcsk (last access: 10 February 2017).