GC: n

S: BBC – (last access: 22 February 2019); Techopedia – (last access: 19 February 2019).

N: 1. crackers: These individuals are generally responsible for breaking into networks, cracking passwords in websites and programs, and generally causing havoc throughout the Internet. They are mostly malicious teens who get a kick from destroying or altering data on a system. Crackers will look for a weakness in a computer system and then exploit that weakness. Some of them are advanced computer users, but often they have no idea of what they are doing and have very little, or no programming skills.
2. hackers: A hacker was originally an expert or enthusiast of any kind (eg horse riding, astronomy). It was first used in conjunction with computer programming in the 1960s, when certain computer programmers used the term to describe themselves. Hackers are people who enjoy exploring the details of programmable systems. The term hackers has, over the last few years, been increasingly misunderstood and misused. In the media you can often find articles telling of hackers breaking into computer systems and websites stealing and destroying information. In reality however, people who call themselves hackers are the best IT specialists with extensive programming and networking knowledge. Hackers are often very intelligent. A hacker will take delight in hacking into a computer system, and will get joy from finding bugs and holes in the operating system allowing him access.
3. The word hacker is now widely used and recognized over the world as a computer user breaching a system’s security and stealing valuable information. This happens much to the annoyance of true hackers who feel they are not respected. However this term is now so widely used that it has changed its meaning and is used instead of cracker (see below). Hackers are often ex-crackers who have decided to use their skills to help other people and make a living. They are often hired by governments and other large corporations to find holes in, and hence protect, their computer networks. For this reason crackers have no respect for hackers and vice versa. Hackers consider themselves as an elite, and there is a sense of ego satisfaction in being and being known as a hacker.
4. hacker: A technically sophisticated computer enthusiast who uses his or her knowledge and means to gain unauthorized access to protected resources.
5. cracker: A malicious hacker who breaks (or cracks) the security of computer systems in order to access, steal, or destroy sensitive information.
6. hacker; computer hacker: terms standardized by CSA International.

S: 1 to 3. BBC – (last access: 22 February 2019). 4 to 6. TERMIUM PLUS – (last access: 19 February 2019).

SYN: 1. black hat hacker. 2. computer cracker.

S: 1. GDT – (last access: 19 February 2019); PCT – (last access: 31 August 2015). 2. TERMIUM PLUS – (last access: 19 February 2019).

CR: buccaneer, freebooter, hijacker, letter of marque, piracy, piracy (2), pirate, privateer.