S: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/255053/13-313k-construction-building-materials-bulletin-october-2013.pdf (last access: 30 March 2014); http://www.cement.org/cement-concrete-basics/how-concrete-is-made (last access: 30 July 2015).
N: 1. concrete, in construction, structural material consisting of a hard, chemically inert particulate substance, known as aggregate (usually sand and gravel), that is bonded together by cement and water.
2. Among the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians, the bonding substance most often used was clay. The Egyptians developed a substance more closely resembling modern concrete by using lime and gypsum as binders. Lime (calcium oxide), derived from limestone, chalk, or (where available) oyster shells, continued to be the primary pozzolanic, or cement-forming, agent until the early 1800s. In 1824 an English inventor, Joseph Aspdin, burned and ground together a mixture of limestone and clay. This mixture, called portland cement, has remained the dominant cementing agent used in concrete production.
3. Mixture of aggregate, hydraulic cement and water, that hardens. (Definition standardized by ISO).
4. concrete: term standardized by ISO.
S: 1 & 2. EncBrit – http://global.britannica.com/technology/concrete-building-material (last access: 30 July 2015). 3 & 4. TERMIUMPLUS.
CR: artificial asphalt, bitumen.