codeine
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GC: n

S: NCBI – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK526029/ (last access: 15 July 2020); NHS – https://www.nhs.uk/medicines/codeine/ (last access: 15 July 2020).

N: 1. “white crystalline alkaloid present in opium,” 1838, codeina, from French codéine, coined, with chemical suffix -ine (2), from Greek kodeia “poppy head,” related to koos “prison,” literally “hollow place;” kodon “bell, mouth of a trumpet;” koilos “hollow, hollowed out, spacious, deep,” all from PIE root *keue- “to swell,” also “vault, hole.” Modern form is from 1881.
2. A white crystalline drug obtained from opium, used to relieve pain and cause sleep.
3. Codeine, also called methylmorphine, naturally occurring alkaloid of opium, the dried milky exudate of the unripe seed capsule of the poppy Papaver somniferum, that is used in medicine as a cough suppressant and analgesic drug. Codeine exerts its effects by acting on the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). First isolated by French chemist Pierre-Jean Robiquet in 1832, codeine may be extracted directly from opium, but most codeine is produced from morphine, another opium derivative. Because of its narcotic effects, the distribution of the drug is controlled by various governmental agencies.

S: 1. OED – https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=codeine (last access: 15 July 2020). 2. TERMIUM PLUS – https://www.btb.termiumplus.gc.ca/tpv2alpha/alpha-eng.html?lang=eng&i=1&srchtxt=CODEINE&codom2nd_wet=1#resultrecs (last access: 15 July 2020). 3. EncBrit – https://www.britannica.com/science/codeine (last access: 15 July 2020).

SYN: methylmorphine

S: EncBrit – https://www.britannica.com/science/codeine (last access: 15 July 2020)

CR: analgesic, morphine, narcotic (2), opium.