S: WHO – https://www.who.int/news-room/feature-stories/detail/the-preventable-pain-pandemic (last access: 12 April 2020); Cochrane – https://www.cochrane.org/CD011056/SYMPT_impact-morphine-fentanyl-oxycodone-or-codeine-patient-consciousness-appetite-and-thirst-when-used (last access: 12 April 2020).
N: 1. 1828, from French morphine or German Morphin (1816), name coined by German apothecary Friedrich Sertürner (1783-1840) in reference to Latin Morpheus (q.v.), Ovid’s name for the god of dreams, from Greek morphē “form, shape, beauty, outward appearance,” which is of unknown origin. So called because of the drug’s sleep-inducing properties.
2. A bitter, white or colorless, crystalline alkaloid, derived from opium and used in medicine to relieve pain. Formula: C17H19O3N – H2.
3. Morphine taken by mouth has been used since the 1950s for controlling cancer pain. In 1986 the World Health Organization recommended taking an oral solution of morphine every four hours. Morphine is now available in a number of different formats that release the morphine over various periods of time. Morphine immediate release is rapidly absorbed, and would usually be taken every four hours. Modified release tablets are available that release morphine more slowly, so that they can be taken only twice a day or even only once a day.
S: 1. OED – https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=morphine (last access: 9 February 2020). 2. TERMIUM PLUS – https://www.btb.termiumplus.gc.ca/tpv2alpha/alpha-eng.html?lang=eng&i=1&srchtxt=MORPHINE&codom2nd_wet=1#resultrecs (last access: 12 April 2020). 3. Cochrane – https://www.cochrane.org/CD003868/SYMPT_oral-morphine-cancer-pain (last access: 12 April 2020).
S: TERMIUM PLUS – https://www.btb.termiumplus.gc.ca/tpv2alpha/alpha-eng.html?lang=eng&i=1&srchtxt=MORPHINE&codom2nd_wet=1#resultrecs (last access: 12 April 2020)