African trypanosomiasis

GC: n

S: WHO – (last access: 31st July 2014); WebMD – (last access: 16 November 2016).

N: 1. Sleeping sickness, also called African trypanosomiasis, infection from the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or the closely related subspecies T. brucei rhodesiense, transmitted by the tsetse fly.
2. Sleeping sickness is characterized by fever, inflammation of the lymph nodes, and involvement of the brain and spinal cord leading to profound lethargy, frequently ending in death. Infections with T. brucei gambiense occur in an area extending from the west coast of Africa eastward to the East African lakes and southward to the Congo River basin. Cases caused by T. brucei rhodesiense are limited to the highlands of central East Africa.
3. Tsetse flies are found just in sub-Saharan Africa though only certain species transmit the disease. For reasons that are so far unexplained, there are many regions where tsetse flies are found, but sleeping sickness is not. Rural populations living in regions where transmission occurs and which depend on agriculture, fishing, animal husbandry or hunting are the most exposed to the tsetse fly and therefore to the disease. The disease develops in areas ranging from a single village to an entire region. Within an infected area, the intensity of the disease can vary from one village to the next.

S: 1 & 2. EncBrit (last access: 31 July 2014). 3. WHO – (last access: 31 July 2014).

SYN: sleeping sickness

S: EncBrit (last access: 31 July 2014); WHO – (last access: 31 July 2014).

CR: Chagas disease, glossina, narcolepsy, trypanosome.