S: WHO – http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs100/en/ (last access: 6 December 2013) ; http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Yellow-fever/Pages/Introduction.aspx (last access: 7 August 2015); DORLAND.
N: 1. yellow fever, Aedes aegypti acute infectious disease, one of the great epidemic diseases of the tropical world, though it sometimes has occurred in temperate zones as well.
2. The disease, caused by a flavivirus, infects humans, all species of monkeys, and certain other small mammals.
3. The virus is transmitted from animals to humans and among humans by several species of mosquitoes.
4. Yellow fever appears with a sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, backache, nausea, and vomiting. The skin and eyes may appear yellow—a condition known as jaundice and a sign that gives rise to the disease’s popular name.
5. There is no specific treatment for those with yellow fever beyond good nursing and supportive care.
6. Yellow fever is difficult to diagnose, especially during the early stages. It can be confused with severe malaria, dengue hemorrhagic fever, leptospirosis, viral hepatitis (especially the fulminating forms of hepatitis B and D), other hemorrhagic fevers (Bolivian, Argentine, Venezuelan hemorrhagic fevers and others flavivirus as West Nile, Zika virus etc) and other diseases, as well as poisoning. Blood tests can detect yellow fever antibodies produced in response to the infection. Several other techniques are used to identify the virus in blood specimens or liver tissue collected after death. These tests require highly trained laboratory staff and specialized equipment and materials.
S: 1-5. EncBrit – http://global.britannica.com/science/yellow-fever (last access: 7 August 2015). 6. WHO – http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs100/en/ (last access: 6 December 2013).
CR: dengue, hemorrhagic fever, Japanese encephalitis, Stegomyia albopicta, Zika virus.