S: DWB – http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/ (last access: 21 October 2016); NCBI – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1214562/ (last access: 21 October 2016).
N: 1. 1753, from uro- (word-forming element meaning “urine,” from comb. form of Greek ouron “urine”) + -logy (word-forming element meaning “a speaking, discourse, treatise, doctrine, theory, science,” from Greek -logia -often via French -logie or Medieval Latin -logia-, from root of legein “to speak;” thus, “the character or deportment of one who speaks or treats of -a certain subject-;” often via Medieval Latin -logia, French -logie).
2. Bladder stones have been found in Egyptian mummies dating to several millennia BCE, and the rite of circumcision is thought to have been practiced in Egypt as early as 4000 BCE (Figure (Figure11). Ritual circumcision on the eighth day of life was practiced by the ancient Hebrews as evidence of God’s covenant with Abraham, a story related in Genesis 17: 10–14.
3. The disorders that may be treated by urologists include those involving the kidneys, the ureters (tubes connecting the kidneys to the bladder), the adrenal glands, the bladder and the urethra (the tube that passes urine out of the body from the bladder). In males, an urologist may also treat conditions of the testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis. The field of urology involves the medical management of conditions such as urinary tract infection and prostate enlargement through to the surgical management of conditions such as bladder cancer, prostate cancer, kidney stones and stress incontinence.
S: 1. OED – http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=Urology (last access: 23 October 2016). 2.NCBI – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1214562/ (last access: 21 October 2016). 3. NMedical – http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Urology.aspx (last access: 21 October 2016).