State
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GC: n

S: Stategov – https://www.state.gov/ (last access: 12 March 2021); COE – https://www.coe.int/en/web/portal/belgianchairmanship-federalstate (last access: 12 March 2021).

N: 1. “political organization of a country, supreme civil power, government,” c. 1300, from special use of state (from Old French estat “position, condition; status, stature, station,” and directly from Latin status “a station, position, place; way of standing, posture; order, arrangement, condition,” figuratively “standing, rank; public order, community organization,” noun of action from past participle stem of stare “to stand”); this sense grew out of the meaning “condition of a country” with regard to government, prosperity, etc. (late 13c.), from Latin phrases such as status rei publicæ “condition (or existence) of the republic.”
The sense of “a semi-independent political entity under a federal authority, one of the bodies politic which together make up a federal republic” is from 1774. The British North American colonies occasionally were called states as far back as 1630s; the States has been short for “the United States of America” since 1777; also of the Netherlands. State rights in U.S. political sense is attested from 1798; form states rights is first recorded 1858. Church and state have been contrasted from 1580s. State-socialism attested from 1850.
2. In a popular talk the terms the ‘State’ and Government” are very often used synonymously. Common people use them in an identical sense. Even the king like Louis XIV ignored this distinction when he said. “I am the State”. What he claimed was actually the government and the State whose authority he had possessed.
The political scientists make a clear distinction between the State and government. Some of the difficult problems of political science are solved on the basis of the distinction between the State and government. Some of the difficult problems of political science are solved on the basis of the distinction between the State and government.
The State is more or less permanent and continues from time immemorial. But the government is temporary. It changes frequently. A government may come and go, but the State continues for ever. Death of a ruler or the overthrow of a government in general elections does not mean the change of the State. If the Janata Government replaces the Congress Government, it involves no fundamental changes in the structure of the State of India.
3. – The word state should be capitalized when it comes after the name of a state. For example, “Michigan State.” It seems pretty easy to understand but for residents of Washington State and New York State, it can get confusing. These citizens of these states need to differentiate themselves from other geographical entities namely Washington D.C and New York City.
For all other state citizens, there’s no need for one to use the word “State” when describing where they are from. For example, it is enough for one to say, “I am from Colorado.” They don’t have to say, “I am from Colorado State”. However, it is not enough for a Washington State resident to simply say, “I am from Washington”. Such a person will have to specify and say, “I am from Washington State.”
The word State must be capitalized when talking about the United States as a country. For example, “Kenya’s first direct flight to the United States was commissioned late last year.” You can also say, “My cousin relocated to the States last month.”
You must also capitalize the word state when it forms the full name of a specific body. For example, “The State Finance Department.” The word should only be capitalized if it forms part of the name of the specific body. For example, you cannot say, “ the State’s Finance Department.” It will have to be as follows, “the state’s Finance department.”
– The word state shouldn’t be capitalized if it comes before the name of the state. For example, it should be “the state of Colorado” and not “the State of Colorado”.
The word state shouldn’t be capitalized if it is used in place of a state’s name. For example, you should say, “She is a state employee.”
In addition, you shouldn’t capitalize the word state is used in a general sense. For example, “The state of affairs in Colorado State is quite okay.”
4. Collocations:

  • Adj.: independent, nation, sovereign; foreign; democratic, one-party, socialist, totalitarian, etc. member member states of the European Union. powerful, strong; weak; neighbouring.
  • state + noun: enterprise, monopoly; control, ownership; property; sector, system; education, school; aid, funding, funds, subsidy, support; benefit, pension, intervention, spending; employee; secret.
  • Phrases: affairs/matters of state; head of state.

5. Cultural Interrelation: We can mention the movie Enemy of the State directed by Tony Scott in 1998.

S: 1. OED – http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=state (last access: 5 November 2015). 2. Presart – http://www.preservearticles.com/201012241588/what-is-the-difference-between-state-and-government.html (last access: 5 November 2015). 3. Capitalize – https://capitalizemytitle.com/ufaqs/is-state-capitalized/#:~:text=The%20word%20state%20shouldn’t%20be%20capitalized%20if%20it%20comes,She%20is%20a%20state%20employee.%E2%80%9D (last access: 12 March 2021). 4. OD – http://oxforddictionary.so8848.com/search1?word=state (last access: 5 November 2015). 5. Swampland – http://swampland.time.com/2013/06/07/former-nsa-chief-was-worried-about-enemy-of-the-state-reputation/ (last access: 8 November 2015).

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CR: government, intergovernmental organisation, member state.