S: MAYO – http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/raynauds-disease/basics/definition/con-20022916 (last access: 25 June 2017); NHS – https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/raynauds/ (last access: 21 March 2018).
N: 1. – Raynaud (pn): G. Maurice Raynaud was a French physician, born August 10, 1834; died June 29, 1881.
– phenomenon (n): 1570s, “fact, occurrence,” from Late Latin phænomenon, from Greek phainomenon “that which appears or is seen,” noun use of neuter present participle of phainesthai “to appear,” passive of phainein “bring to light, cause to appear, show”. Meaning “extraordinary occurrence” first recorded 1771. Plural is phenomena.
2. Episodes of constriction of small arteries or arterioles (or both) of extremities, with sequential changes in colour of the skin, pallor, cyanosis, usually following exposure to cold. The fingers become pale, then blue, and painful, and finally bright red at the end of the attack. When such features of Raynaud’s disease occur as a complication to another disease it is called Raynaud’s phenomenon. It is seen as secondary to such conditions as occlusive arterial disease, systemic scleroderma, thoracic outlet syndrome, pulmonary hypertension, myxoedema, or trauma.
3. Causes: The causes of primary and secondary RP are unknown. Both abnormal nerve control of the blood-vessel diameter and nerve sensitivity to cold exposure have been suspected as being contributing factors. The characteristic colour changes of the digits are in part related to initial blood-vessel narrowing due to spasm of the tiny muscles in the wall of the vessels, followed by sudden opening (dilation), as described above. The small arteries of the digits can have microscopic thickness of their inner lining, which also leads to abnormal narrowing of the blood vessels.
4. Types: There are two types of Raynaud’s:
- Primary – when the condition develops by itself (this is the most common type).
- Secondary – when it’s caused by another health condition.
Most cases of secondary Raynaud’s are associated with conditions that cause the immune system to attack healthy tissue (autoimmune conditions), such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.
The causes of primary Raynaud’s are unclear. However 1 in 10 people with primary Raynaud’s goes on to develop a condition associated with secondary Raynaud’s, such as lupus.
5. Cultural Interrelation: : We could mention episode 19 The C-Word from the TV series (2004-2012) House M. D. (season 8).
S: 1. WNMDT – http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/2508.html (last access: 17 June 2017); OED – http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=phenomenon (last access: 17 June 2017). 2. WNMDT – http://www.whonamedit.com/synd.cfm/2956.html (17 June 2017). 3. EME – http://www.medicinenet.com/raynauds_phenomenon/page3.htm (17 June 2017). 4. NHS – http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Raynauds-phenomenon/Pages/Introduction.aspx#Types (last access: 17 June 2017). 5. http://house.wikia.com/wiki/Emily_Lawson (last access: 21 March 2018); https://clinic-duty.livejournal.com/49991.html (last access: 21 March 2018).
OV: Raynaud phenomenon
S: Medscape – https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/331197-overview (last access: 21 March 2018)