S: ANNFAMMED – https://www.annfammed.org/content/6/3/239.full (last access: 20 April 2021); AHA – https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1161/01.CIR.10.1.81 (last access: 20 April 2021).
N: 1. The term appears in 1820-1830; from French râle, derivative of râler “to make a rattling sound in the throat”.
2. An abnormal sound heard accompanying the normal respiratory sounds on auscultation of the chest.
3. Rales may be divided roughly into three categories: fine, medium, and coarse. They are most often heard in the terminal phase of inspiration.
4. The term rale has also a generic meaning which is any added sound different from the pleural friction rub. In this case, it corresponds to the French term râle.
5. Types of abnormal breath sounds include:
- Rales. This is a fine, high-pitched crackling or rattling sound that can occur when you inhale.
- Rhonchi. This is a low-pitched sound that resembles snoring.
- Wheezing. This is a high-pitched sound, almost like a long squeak, that can occur as you inhale or exhale.
- Stridor. This is a high-pitched, loud sound that sometimes sounds like a cough or bark.
6. Stertor and stridor are two abnormal sounds that result from upper airway partial or complete obstruction. These sounds are not distinguished based upon where they originate in the respiratory cycle: either can be inspiratory or expiratory. Rather, stertor and stridor are distinct because of their pitch. The low‐pitched sound that is associated with stertor suggests that flaccid tissue is vibrating throughout the respiratory cycle.
S: 1. DICT – https://www.dictionary.com/browse/rale (last access: 12 April 2021). 2. MW – https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/rale (last access: 14 April 2021). 3&4. TERMIUM PLUS – https://www.btb.termiumplus.gc.ca/tpv2alpha/alpha-eng.html?lang=eng&i=1&srchtxt=rale&index=alt&codom2nd_wet=1#resultrecs (last access: 14 April 2021). 5. HLN – https://www.healthline.com/health/rales-vs-rhonchi#types-of-sounds (last access: 16 August 2021). 6. RESG – https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335606885_Stertor_and_Stridor (last access: 16 August 2021).
S: ASA – https://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.389151 (last access: 14 April 2021)