pyelonephritis
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GC: n

S: MAYO – https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/kidney-infection/symptoms-causes/syc-20353387 (last access: 30 November 2019); DRUGS – https://www.drugs.com/health-guide/pyelonephritis.html (last access: 30 November 2019).

N: 1. From “pyelo-” (before vowels pyel-, medical word-forming element, 19c., from Greek pyelos “oblong trough, bathing-tub,” used for “pelvis.”) and “nephritis” (“inflammation of the kidneys,” 1570s, from Late Latin nephritis, from Greek nephritis “disease of the kidneys,” from nephros “kidney” + -itis “inflammation”; the earlier word was nefresis -late 14c.-, and nefretik -modern nephritic– “affected by a disease of the kidneys” -from Medieval Latin nephreticus– also is from late 14c.).
First Known Use: 1839. History and Etymology: New Latin.
2. Inflammation of the kidney and its pelvis, beginning in the interstitium and rapidly extending to involve the tubules, glomeruli, and blood vessels; due to bacterial infection.
3. The infection usually starts in the lower urinary tract as a urinary tract infection (UTI). Bacteria enter the body through the urethra and begin to multiply and spread up to the bladder. From there, the bacteria travel through the ureters to the kidneys.
Bacteria such as E. coli often cause the infection. However, any serious infection in the bloodstream can also spread to the kidneys and cause acute pyelonephritis.
4. Acute pyelonephritis: Any problem that interrupts the normal flow of urine causes a greater risk of acute pyelonephritis. For example, a urinary tract that’s an unusual size or shape is more likely to lead to acute pyelonephritis.
Also, women’s urethras are much shorter than men’s, so it’s easier for bacteria to enter their bodies. That makes women more prone to kidney infections and puts them at a higher risk of acute pyelonephritis.
5. Chronic pyelonephritis: Chronic forms of the condition are more common in people with urinary obstructions. These can be caused by UTIs, vesicoureteral reflux, or anatomical anomalies. Chronic pyelonephritis is more common in children than in adults.

S: 1. OED – https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=pyelo; https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=nephritis (last access: 30 November 2019); MW – https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pyelonephritis (last access: 30 November 2019). 2. TERMIUM PLUS – https://bit.ly/2OZNEr9 (last access: 30 November 2019). 3 to 5. HLN – https://www.healthline.com/health/pyelonephritis#risk-factors (last access: 30 November 2019).

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CR: bacterium, Escherichia coli, nephrology, urology.