GC: n

S: WHO – http://www.who.int/topics/poliomyelitis/en/ (last access: 12 November 2013); https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001402.htm (last access: 8 October 2015); http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/downloads/polio.pdf (last access: 8 October 2015).

N: 1. 1874, also polio-myelitis, coined by German physician Adolph Kussmaul (1822-1902) from Greek polios “grey” (see fallow (adj.)) + myelos “marrow” + -itis “inflammation.” So called because the gray matter in the spinal cord is inflamed, which causes paralysis. The earlier name was infantile paralysis (1843).
2. Poliomyelitis (polio) is a highly infectious viral disease, which mainly affects young children. The virus is transmitted through contaminated food and water, and multiplies in the intestine, from where it can invade the nervous system.
3. Polio can only be prevented by immunization.
4. Poliomyelitis is a disease caused by infection with the poliovirus. The virus spreads by:

  • Direct person-to-person contact.
  • Contact with infected mucus or phlegm from the nose or mouth.
  • Contact with infected feces.

The virus enters through the mouth and nose, multiplies in the throat and intestinal tract, and then is absorbed and spread through the blood and lymph system. The time from being infected with the virus to developing symptoms of disease (incubation) ranges from 5 – 35 days (average 7 – 14 days). Most people do not develop symptoms.
Risks include:

  • Lack of immunization against polio.
  • Travel to an area that has experienced a polio outbreak.

5. Cultural Interrelation: The novels Leave her to heaven written by Ben Ames Williams and first published in 1947, Silver wattle, written by Belinda Alexandra and published in 2007, Nemesis, written by Philip Roth and published in 2010, are some examples of literary works on the subject.

S: 1. OED – http://goo.gl/CUn5a1 (last access: 4 September 2014). 2 & 3. WHO – http://goo.gl/oBa0yB (last access: 12 November 2013). 4. MEDLP – http://goo.gl/3d6ePr (last access: 5 December 2013). 5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25245876 (last access: 8 May 2016).

GV: polio-myelitis

S: OED – http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=poliomyelitis&searchmode=none (last access: 4 September 2014)

SYN: polio

S: EncBrit – http://global.britannica.com/science/polio (last access: 4 September 2014); TERMIUM PLUS (last access: 4 September 2014); GDT – http://www.granddictionnaire.com/ficheOqlf.aspx?Id_Fiche=10422193 (last access: 4 September 2014).

CR: HeLa cell, poliovirus.