S: Thoracic – https://goo.gl/6gWxId (last access: 14 December 2016 ); MedlinePlus – https://goo.gl/hxogtg (last access: 14 December 2016); ATSJ – https://goo.gl/gPB7vJ (last access: 14 December 2016).
N: 1. Pickwickian syndrome is a disorder that was named after Joe, the fat, red faced boy in Charles Dickens’ The Pickwick Papers, but was discovered by Sidney Burwell in 1994
2. Obesity-hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), also historically described as the Pickwickian syndrome, consists of the triad of obesity, sleep disordered breathing, and chronic hypercapnia during wakefulness in the absence of other known causes of hypercapnia. Its exact prevalence is unknown, but it has been estimated that 10% to 20% of obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea have hypercapnia. OHS often remains undiagnosed until late in the course of the disease.
3. The exact cause of OHS is not known. Doctors believe OHS results from a defect in the brain’s control over breathing. Excess weight against the chest wall also makes it harder for the muscles to draw in a deep breath and to breathe quickly enough. As a result, the blood contains too much carbon dioxide and not enough oxygen.
4. The three main characteristics of OHS are:
- daytime hypoventilation (difficulty getting rid of carbon dioxide);
- sleep disordered breathing (such as obstructive sleep apnea).
OHS is also referred to as Pickwickian syndrome because persons with OHS may have symptoms like those described by Charles Dickens in his book, The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club.
5. Cultural Interrelation: We can mention The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club (1837). a novel written by Charles Dickens (1812-1870).
S: 1. OEL – https://goo.gl/2EFfw2 (last access: 14 December 2016 ). 2.NCBI – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19700045 (last access: 14 December 2016 ). 3. MedlinePlus – https://goo.gl/hxogtg (last access:14 December 2016 ). 4. Thoracic – https://goo.gl/6gWxId (last access: 14 December 2016). 5. Healthcentral – https://goo.gl/8Ox97n (last access: 14 December 2016).
SYN: Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome
S: ATSJ – https://goo.gl/gPB7vJ (last access: 14 December 2016)