influenza
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GC: n

S: WHO – http://www.who.int/topics/influenza/en/ (last access: 28 February 2013); NCBI – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2928832/ (last access: 15 May 2020).

N: 1. 1743, borrowed during an outbreak of the disease in Europe, from Italian influenza “influenza, epidemic,” originally “visitation, influence (of the stars),” from Medieval Latin influentia (see influence). Used in Italian for diseases since at least 1504 (as in influenza di febbre scarlattina “scarlet fever”) on notion of astral or occult influence. The 1743 outbreak began in Italy. Often applied since mid-19c. to severe colds.
2. influenza, also called flu or grippe, an acute viral infection of the upper or lower respiratory tract that is marked by fever, chills, and a generalized feeling of weakness and pain in the muscles, together with varying degrees of soreness in the head and abdomen.
3. An acute viral infection of the respiratory tract, which may occur as an isolated case, epidemic, or pandemic.
4. The disease is caused by the specific influenza virus, of which there are three antigenic types, designated A, B and C.
5. Collocations:
– influenza

  • Quant.: attack, bout.
  • Verb + influenza: have, suffer from | catch, contract.
  • Influenza + noun: epidemic | virus.

– flu

  • Adj.: mild | gastric | summer.
  • Quant.: bout, dose.
  • Verb + flu: be in bed with, be laid up with, have, suffer from | catch, contract, get, go down with.
  • Flu + noun: bug, virus | epidemic | victim | vaccine | jab.

S: 1. OED – http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=influenza&searchmode=none (last access: 4 September 2014); DORLAND p. 937. 2. EncBrit (last access: 27 May 2015). 3 & 4. TERMIUM PLUS (last access: 27 May 2015). 5. OD – http://oxforddictionary.so8848.com/search?word=influenza; http://oxforddictionary.so8848.com/search?word=flu (last access: 27 May 2015).

SYN: 1. flu. 2. grippe.

S: 1. EncBrit (last access: 27 May 2015); http://www.flu.gov/#` (last access: 28 February 2013). 2. EncBrit (last access: 27 May 2015).

CR: cold, Spanish influenza.