infestation
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GC: n

S:  NCBI – https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/802801/ (last access: 12 January 2024); IOMC – https://www.iomcworld.org/medical-journals/infestation-42931.html (last access: 12 January 2024).

N: 1. early 15c., “a being infested,” from Old French infestacion, from Late Latin infestationem (nominative infestatio) “a troubling, a disturbing, a molesting,” noun of action from past participle stem of Latin infestare “to attack, disturb”.

2. The act of infesting; state of being infested. A harassing or troublesome invasion, for example: an infestation of ants.

3. In animal disease: Infectious and noninfectious diseases. The term infestation indicates that animals, including spiny-headed worms (Acanthocephala), roundworms (Nematoda), flatworms (Platyhelminthes), and arthropods such as lice, fleas, mites, and ticks, are present in or on the body of a host. An infestation is not necessarily parasitic.

4. Ecology (General): A habitat or environment invasion by a dramatic spread of an organism (plant or animal) that may cause problems or damages.

Epidemiology: An attack by any of the smaller organisms on fabrics, processed foods or liquids.

5. Infections are diseases caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. In contrast, infestations are diseases caused by parasites that depend on hosts for nutrition, such as helminths, protozoa, ectoparasites, mites, and pests. Diagnosing infections and infestation is based on history and clinical findings, followed by swab culture, blood tests, and imaging tests.

6. Cultural Interrelation: We can mention the TV show The last of us (2023) based on the videogame (2013).

S: 1. OED – https://www.etymonline.com/search?q=infestation (last access: 12 January 2024). 2. CED – https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/infestation (last access: 12 January 2024). 3. EncBrit – https://www.britannica.com/science/infestation (last access: 12 January 2024). 4. TERMIUM PLUS – https://www.btb.termiumplus.gc.ca/tpv2alpha/alpha-eng.html?lang=eng&i=1&srchtxt=infestation&index=alt&codom2nd_wet=1#resultrecs (last access: 12 January 2024). 5. iCliniq – https://www.icliniq.com/articles/infectious-diseases/infections-and-infestations (last access: 12 January 2024). 6. FA – https://www.filmaffinity.com/es/film205905.html (last access: 12 January 2024).

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CR: amebiasis, contagion, filariasis, helminth, helminthiasis, infection, louse, measles, myiasisparasitosis, pediculosisscabies, schistosomiasis, Stegomyia albopicta, trench fever, trichinosis, zoonosis.