government
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GC: n

S: GlobHum – http://www.globalhumanitarianassistance.org/countryprofile/united-states (last access: 5 November 2015); GovUK – https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/humanitarian-emergencies (last access: 5 November 2015).

N: 1. late 14c., “act of governing or ruling;” 1550s, “system by which a thing is governed” (especially a state), from Old French governement “control, direction, administration” (Modern French gouvernement), from governer “to govern”. Meaning “governing power” in a given place is from 1702.
2. In a popular talk the terms the ‘State’ and Government” are very often used synonymously. Common people use them in an identical sense. Even the king like Louis XIV ignored this distinction when he said. “I am the State”. What he claimed was actually the government and the State whose authority he had possessed.
The political scientists make a clear distinction between the State and government. Some of the difficult problems of political science are solved on the basis of the distinction between the State and government. Some of the difficult problems of political science are solved on the basis of the distinction between the State and government.
Government is a narrow concept and it is an element of the State. It is rightly said the State is an organic concept in which the government is a part. Willoughby writes. “By the term government is designated the organization of the State machinery through which is designated the organization of the State machinery through which its purposes are formulated and executed'”. Government is an agent of the State. That is why in a democracy, it is considered as servant and the State as master. Government is compared with the brain of the living organism; what the brain is to the man. The government is to the State.
3. The government, when used as a common noun, should not be capitalized unless it comes at the beginning of the sentence. Here are instances when the word government is not capitalized:

  • The current government has failed to deliver its mandate.
  • The city government is in a financial crisis.
  • The British government is in the middle of Brexit.

The term government in these examples is not capitalized because it does not refer to a specific government. This makes it a common noun.

Examples of questions where the term government is not capitalized:

  • Why is the current government reluctant to deport immigrants?
  • When did American governments formulate an effective plan for the benefits of their citizens?

– It should be capitalized when it is used as a proper noun.
When referring to a particular entity or government, it qualifies to be capitalized regardless of where it is used in a sentence because it is considered a proper noun. For example:

  • The United States Government has taken steps to boost the economy.

Here it refers to the government of a specific country and, in this case, “The United States” so it is capitalized.

  • The Australian Government has agreed to partner with the United Kingdom Government to fight terrorism.

In this case, the term government is capitalized because it refers to specific countries, i.e., the United Kingdom, and Australia.

  • The South Africa Government is reluctant to renew foreigners’ work permits.

-The term “government” is capitalized when used in headlines such as newspapers and novels. Here are examples:

  • How the Government spent $150 million to prevent malaria outbreak.
  • The “Government Untold Tale” by Jason Stewart.

-When used in questions, it can be capitalized. Here are examples:

  • Why did the United States Government disregard the 2018 Supreme Court ruling?
  • What led the US Government to cancel the scholarships recently awarded to needy students from across the globe?

4. Collocations:
– people in control of a country:

  • Adj.: central, federal, local, national, provincial, regional; Communist, Conservative, Labour, etc.; left-wing, right-wing; coalition; minority; caretaker, interim, transitional; military; puppet; French; Western, etc.
  • Verb + government: elect; form; install; swear in; head; bring down, destabilize, oust, overthrow, topple.
  • government + verb: come to power; take office; fall; announce sth;introduce sth, launch sth.
  • government + noun: agency, body, department; funds, money; aid, assistance, backing, funding, grant, subsidy, support; expenditure, spending; cuts; control; intervention; minister, official, representative, spokesman; sources; figures, statistics; post; reshuffle; decisions, legislation, measures, plans, policy, proposals; report; propaganda.
  • Preposition: in ~ a problem facing whichever party is in government; under a/the ~ measures that were introduced under the last government
  • Phrases: a change of government It is time we had a change of government. | the government of the day This was a decision taken by the government of the day. | a member of a government The prime minister has been meeting members of the French government.

– act of governing:

  • Adj.: democratic, representative; firm, good, strong; weak.

S: 1. OED – http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=government&searchmode=none (last access: 5 November 2015). 2. http://www.preservearticles.com/201012241588/what-is-the-difference-between-state-and-government.html (last access: 5 November 2015). 3. https://capitalizemytitle.com/ufaqs/is-government-capitalized/ (last access: 12 March 2021). 4. OD – http://oxforddictionary.so8848.com/search?word=government (last access: 5 November 2015).

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CR: intergovernmental organisation, State.