electrodialysis
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GC: n

S: http://www.usbr.gov/tsc/water/publications/reportpdfs/Primer%20Files/07%20-%20Electrodialysis.pdf (last access: 18 September 2015); http://www.electrosynthesis.com/electrodialysis.html (last access: 18 September 2015).

N: 1. A process employing an electrical current and an arrangement of permeable membranes for separating soluble minerals from water.
2. A process used for the deionization of water in which ions are removed, under the influence of an electric field, from one body of water and transferred to another across an ion-exchange membrane.
3. Term and definition standardized by ISO.
4. Electrodialysis/Electrodialysis Reversal (ED/EDR) uses an ion exchange membrane to separate ionic contaminants. An electric voltage is applied across alternating anion and cation exchange membranes, and is periodically reversed in order to clean the membranes. ED/EDR has been identified by EPA as a Small System Compliance Technology (SSCT) for radium, and may also be effective in removing uranium, arsenic, nitrate, perchlorate, and hardness. The units can be highly automated and only require monitoring of operational parameters and periodic maintenance. ED/EDR may be an effective alternative for small systems that have multiple contaminants. The costs of these systems are relatively high compared to other radionuclide treatment options. Capital costs are high and operating costs are increased by required acid washes for radionuclides and by disposal costs. The reject stream and membranes will contain elevated concentrations of radionuclides and other contaminants.

S: 1. GDT. 2 & 3. TERMIUMPLUS. 4. http://cfpub.epa.gov/safewater/radionuclides/radionuclides.cfm?action=Rad_Electrodialysis (last access: 18 September 2015).

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CR: demineralization