GC: n

S: PBS – https://goo.gl/M6nQeb (last access: 11 November 2016); MNT – https://goo.gl/NwcFzf (last access: 11 November 2016).

N: 1. From dwarf, old English dweorh, dweorg (West Saxon), duerg (Mercian), “very short human being”, from Proto-Germanic dweraz and -ism, word-forming element making nouns implying a practice, system, doctrine, etc., from French -isme or directly from Latin -isma, -ismus , from Greek -ismos, noun ending signifying “the practice or teaching of a thing”.
2. It is characterized by short stature. Technically, that means an adult height of 4 feet 10 inches or under.
3. Generally dwarfism can cause either Disproportionate short stature or Proportionate short stature.

  • In the Disproportionate dwarfism, one or more body parts are larger than the other and in most cases the trunk is larger than the limbs. The head is usually disproportionately large compared with the rest of the body. The majority of dwarfism cases are of the DSS form and the most common cause of DSS is achondroplasia.
  • In the Proportionate dwarfism all parts of the body are small but they are in proportion to each other. Growth hormone deficiency is a relatively common cause of proportionate dwarfism.

4. Some people prefer the term “short stature” rather than “dwarf” or “dwarfism.” So it’s important to be sensitive to the preference of someone who has this disorder.
5. Traditionally, the term “dwarf” was used to describe individuals with disproportions of body and limb, while “midget” referred to those of reduced stature but normal proportions; today neither word is used, and “little people” has become the preferred term for persons with extreme growth retardation.
6. Among the common forms of hereditary dwarfism are achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, and diastrophic dwarfism.
7. Can be caused by any one of more than 300 conditions, most of which are genetic. Other causes are metabolic or hormonal disorders in infancy or childhood.
8. Dwarfism is different from cretinism since it does not iinvolve mental deficiency. Cretinism is a condition arising from the deficiency of a thyroid hormone, which causes a type of dwarfism and mental retardation. It is present from birth.
9. A dwarf is an extremely short adult who is less than 58 inches tall. The word midget is considered derogatory and offensive. Both words describe a short person, but refer to different physical characteristics and genetic conditions
10. Cultural Interrelation: We can mention The Brothers Grimm tale Sneewittchen (Snow White, 1812), the American Pre-Code horror film Freaks (1932) by Tod Browning and the American reality television series Little People, Big World (2006-).

S: 1. OED – https://goo.gl/do858t (last access: 11 November 2016); https://goo.gl/BWDCPQ (last access: 11 November 2016). 2. KH – https://goo.gl/CNf5NL (last access: 11 November 2016). 3. NMN – https://goo.gl/9T4m6C (last access: 11 November 2016). 4. MAYO – https://goo.gl/gDiaCn (last access: 11 November 2016). 5 & 6. EncBritGB – https://goo.gl/LcwKC4 (last access: 11 November 2016). 7 & 8. KH – https://goo.gl/Gi7CiZ (last access: 11 November 2016). 9. http://www.diffen.com/difference/Dwarf_vs_Midget (last access: 18 November 2016). 10. http://germanstories.vcu.edu/grimm/schneeeng.html (last access: 18 November 2016); http://www.filmaboutit.com/en/shop/freaks-6796.htm (last access: 18 November 2016); IMDb – https://goo.gl/NmvVzB (last access: 11 November 2016).

SYN: nanism

F: FD – https://goo.gl/qNYFk1 (last access: 11 November 2016); COSNAUTAS/LIBRO ROJO (last access: 18 November 2016).

CR: achondroplasia, growth hormone, progeria.