S: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/233605314_The_effect_of_defoliation_environment_on_primary_growth_allocation_and_secondary_tiller_recruitment_of_two_bunchgrasses (last access: 13 July 2015); http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/83/4/423 (last access: 13 July 2015).
N: 1. 1650s, noun of action from past participle stem of Late Latin defoliare “shed leaves,” from de- (see de-) + folium “leaf” (see folio).
2. Normal or pathological loss of leaves.The term “defoliation” can refer to the technique of leaf removal as well as the loss of foliage caused by naturel phenomena (hail, fire, frost) or by insect defoliator.
3. Defoliation refers to the process when a tree or shrub loses its leaves. There are many reasons why leaves may be lost. Possible causes include chemicals, pests, diseases, environment and (for deciduous trees and shrubs) autumn.
Defoliation can be quite a problem for trees and shrubs. The plant uses the chlorophyll in leaves to create energy through photosynthesis. Fewer leaves means there is less energy for the plant.
S: 1. OED – http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=defoliation&searchmode=none (last access: 3 September 2014). 2. TERMIUMPLUS. 3. About.com – http://treesandshrubs.about.com/od/glossaryofcommonterms/g/Defoliation.htm (las access: 1 December 2013).
SYN: 1. leaf removal, leaf cutting. 2. leaf drop, leaf loss.
S: 1. http://www.bonsai4me.com/AdvTech/ATdefoliating.htm (last access: 1 December 2013). 2. TERMIUMPLUS.