cervical cancer

GC: n

S: ATMPH – https://goo.gl/MZr1t0 (last access: 4 November 2016); NMN – http://www.news-medical.net/health/Cervical-Cancer-Epidemiology.aspx (last access: 4 November 2016).

N: 1. cervical (n): Early 15c., “ligament in the neck,” from Latin cervix “the neck, nape of the neck,” from PIE *kerw-o-, from root *ker- “horn, head”. Applied to various neck-like structures of the body, especially that of the uterus (by 1702), where it is shortened from medical Latin cervix uteri (17c.). Sometimes in medical writing 18c.-19c. cervix of the uterus to distinguish it from the neck sense.
cancer (n): Old English cancer “spreading sore, cancer” (also canceradl), from Latin cancer “a crab,” later, “malignant tumor,” from Greek karkinos, which, like the Modern English word, has three meanings: crab, tumor, and the zodiac constellation (late Old English), from PIE root qarq- “to be hard” (like the shell of a crab); cognates: Sanskrit karkatah “crab,” karkarah “hard;” and perhaps cognate with PIE root qar-tu- “hard, strong,” source of English hard.
Greek physicians Hippocrates and Galen, among others, noted similarity of crabs to some tumors with swollen veins. Meaning “person born under the zodiac sign of Cancer” is from 1894. The sun being in Cancer at the summer solstice, the constellation had association in Latin writers with the south and with summer heat. Cancer stick “cigarette” is from 1959.
2. A malignant tumour that starts in the cells of the cervix.
3. Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. Among the women, gynecological cancers are most common. Cervical cancer is a main gynecological cancer of the women. The global burden of cervical cancer is disproportionately high among the developing countries where 85 per cent of the estimated 493, 000 new cases and 273, 000 deaths occur worldwide. There are several dimensions of the problem. Cervical cancer is a problem where people are poor, where the socio-economic status of the women is low and sometimes specific ethnicity also posses additional risk to the women to develop cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus infection is a main risk factor for the cervical cancer however there are some other factors which increase the risk. Among them some are number of sexual partners, age of first sexual intercourse, infection of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormonal contraceptives, parity, age, smoking, food and diet. Apart from these factors, some other issues, such as policy on cancer, capacity of health system, socio-economic and cultural factors and awareness among the women are also associated with the cervical cancer related morbidity and mortality across the developing countries.
4. Cultural Interrelation: We can mention the film for the series Kill or Cure? (2009) produced by Rockhopper TV and PATH in BBC.

S: 1.OED – http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=cervix; http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=cervical+cancer (last access: 4 November 2016). 2. TERMIUM PLUS – http://goo.gl/YYAx4x (last access: 6 November 2016). 3. ATMPH – https://goo.gl/MZr1t0 (last access: 4 November 2016). 4. RHO – http://www.rho.org/aps/video-kill-or-cure_09.htm (last access: 4 November 2016).

SYN: cancer of the cervix

S: TERMIUM PLUS – http://goo.gl/YYAx4x (last access: 6 November 2016); Interglot – https://www.interglot.com/dictionary/en/en/translate/cervical%20cancer (last access: 4 November 2016)

CR: biopsy, cancer, cancerology, carcinoma, HeLa cell.