S: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2990190/ (last access: 12 october 2016); http://www.nature.com/emm/journal/v44/n2/full/emm201210a.html (last access: 12 october 2016).
N: 1. The word autophagy is derived from Greek words “auto” meaning self and “phagy” meaning eating. Autophagy is a normal physiological process in the body that deals with destruction of cells in the body.
2. It maintains homeostasis or normal functioning by protein degradation and turnover of the destroyed cell organelles for new cell formation.
3. During cellular stress the process of Autophagy is upscaled and increased. Cellular stress is caused when there is deprivation of nutrients and/or growth factors.
4. Thus Autophagy may provide an alternate source of intracellular building blocks and substrates that may generate energy to enable continuous cell survival.
5. Cultural Interrelation: The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet has today decided to award the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Yoshinori Ohsumi for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy.
S: 1 to 4. http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Autophagy.aspx (last access: 12 october 2016). 5. https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2016/press.html (last access: 12 october 2016).