CG: n

S: ATAXIA – (last access: 4 November 2016); NCBI – (last access: 4 November 2016).

N: 1. From Greek ataxia, from a-, privative prefix, + taxis (arrangement, order,) from stem of tassein (to arrange).
2. Friedreich ataxia, which is an autosomal recessive ataxia resulting from a mutation of a gene locus on chromosome 9. FA was the earliest of the inherited ataxias to be distinguished from other locomotor ataxias and is the most common of the autosomal recessive ataxias. It was first described in 1863 by Nikolaus Friedreich (1825-1882), a professor of medicine in Heidelberg, Germany.
3. Symptoms and time of onset vary according to the type of ataxia. In fact there are often variations even within the same family with the same type of ataxia. Recessive disorders commonly cause symptoms to begin in childhood rather than adulthood. However, in recent years since genetic testing became available, it is now known the Friedreich’s ataxia has an adult onset on some occasions. Dominant ataxia often begins in the 20s or 30s or even later in life. Sometimes individuals may not show symptoms until they are in their 60s.
Typically balance and coordination are affected first. In coordination of hands, arms, and legs, and slurring of speech are other common symptoms. Walking becomes difficult and is characterized by walking with feet placed further apart to compensate for poor balance. Impaired coordination of the arms and hands affect a person’s ability to perform tasks requiring fine motor control such as writing and eating. Slow eye movements can be seen in some form of ataxia. As time goes on, ataxia can affect speech and swallowing.
The hereditary ataxias are degenerative disorders that progress over a number of years. How severe the disability will become and whether the disease will lead to death depends on type of ataxia, the age of onset of symptoms and other factors that are poorly understood at this time. Respiratory complications can be fatal in a person who is bed bound or who has severe swallowing problems. Some persons with Friedreich’s ataxia develop serious cardiac problems.
4. The international ataxia awareness day is September 25.
5. dystaxia: partial ataxia, such as dystaxia agitans, in which a spinal cord irritation causes a tremor but no paralysis.

S: 1. OED – (last access: 4 November 2016). 2. MSC – (last access: 4 November 2016). 3 & 4. ATAXIA –; (last access: 4 November 2016). 5. – Mosby’s Medical Dictionary, 9th edition. © 2009, Elsevier (last access: 8 November 2016).

OV: ataxy

S: TERMIUM PLUS – (last access: 4 November 2016)


CR: disorder, lesion, mercury, Minamata disease, syndrome, ubiquitin.