arthritis
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S: AF – http://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/understanding-arthritis/what-is-arthritis.php (last access: 3 November 2016); CDC – http://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/data_statistics/arthritis-related-stats.htm (last access: 5 November 2016).

N: 1. Inflammation of a joint,” 1540s, from medical Latin arthritis, from Greek (nosos) arthritis “(disease) of the joints,” from arthritis, fem. of arthritis (adj.) “pertaining to joints” (Greek nosos is a fem. noun), from arthron “a joint.”
2.The word arthritis is used by clinicians to specifically mean inflammation of the joints, it is used in public health to refer more generally to more than 100 rheumatic diseases and conditions that affect joints, the tissues that surround the joint, and other connective tissue. The pattern, severity, and location of symptoms can vary depending on the type of disease. Typically, rheumatic conditions are characterized by pain and stiffness in or around one or more joints. The symptoms can develop gradually or suddenly. Certain rheumatic conditions can also involve the immune system and other internal organs of the body.
3. Types of arthritis, the two most common types of arthritis are:
• osteoarthritis
• rheumatoid arthritis
Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis in the UK, affecting around 8 million people. It most often develops in adults who are in their late 40s or older. It’s also more common in women and people with a family history of the condition. However, it can occur at any age as a result of an injury or be associated with other joint-related conditions, such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis.
Rheumatoid arthritis In the UK, rheumatoid arthritis affects more than 400,000 people. It often starts when a person is between 40 and 50 years old. Women are three times more likely to be affected than men.
4. Rheumatoid and osteoarthritis are two different conditions. Rheumatoid arthritis occurs when the body’s immune system targets affected joints, which leads to pain and swelling. The outer covering (synovium) of the joint is the first place affected. This can then spread across the joint, leading to further swelling and a change in the joint’s shape. This may cause the bone and cartilage to break down. People with rheumatoid arthritis can also develop problems with other tissues and organs in their body.

S: 1. OED –http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=arthritis (last access: 3 November 2016). 2. CDC – http://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/general.htm (last access: 3 November 16). 3 & 4. NHS – http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Arthritis/Pages/Introduction.aspx (last access: 3 November 2016).

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CR: osteoarthritis, psoriasisrheumatoid arthritis.