S: PMC – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4386010/ (last access: 19 October 2017); JBYP – https://goo.gl/Gi3nM6 (last access: 19 October 2017).
N: 1. From Latin anthrax (virulent ulcer), from Greek anthrax (charcoal, live coal, also carbuncle, which is of unknown origin) + -osis (a state of disease) from Latin -osis and directly from Greek -osis (formed from the aorist of verbs ending in -o).
2. Black discoloration of bronchi from carbon pigment that typically causes deformation and obstruction, may be asymptomatic or cause respiratory symptoms (such as cough and labored breathing), and is often associated with the inhalation of coal dust and wood smoke.
3. The term anthracosis refers to a blackish pigmentation of the lungs caused by deposition of carbon particles and may be observed with no evident pathologic change at autopsy.
4. An occupational disease of coal workers resulting from deposition of coal dust in the lungs.
5. Anthracosis is only rarely associated with overt pulmonary disease, except after prolonged, heavy, usually occupational exposure, when the condition is preferably labelled as a pneumoconiosis, e.g. graphite pneumoconiosis (graphitosis) or coal workers pneumoconiosis. The latter pneumoconiosis is often called anthracosilicosis (particularly in continental Europe), because this pneumoconiosis has been considered to be caused predominantly by the silica content of coal dust. While this may be true in many instances, the use of anthracosilicosis to indicate coal worker’s pneumoconiosis is probably not entirely appropriate, because the pathology of coal workers pneumoconiosis is different from that of silicosis.
S: 1. MEDICALDICT – https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/anthracosis – Mosby’s Medical Dictionary, 9th edition. © 2009, Elsevier (last access: 22 October 2017). 2. MW – https://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/anthracosis (last access: 22 October 2017). 3. GDT – http://www.granddictionnaire.com/ficheOqlf.aspx?Id_Fiche=2078806 (last access: 22 October 2017). 4 & 5. TERMIUM PLUS – https://goo.gl/udfK8q (last access: 20 October 2017).
SYN: black lung disease, coal worker’s pneumoconiosis, miner’s pneumoconiosis.
S: MEDICALDICT – https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/anthracosis – Mosby’s Medical Dictionary, 9th edition. © 2009, Elsevier (last access: 22 October 2017)