S: TWB – https://translatorswithoutborders.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/alnap-innovation-wordsofrelief-case-study.pdf (last access: 18 January 2018); https://techcrunch.com/2013/10/18/social-translation-app-linqapp-connects-you-with-native-speakers-for-speedy-accurate-answers/ (last access: 18 January 2018).
N: 1. mid-14c., “removal of a saint’s body or relics to a new place,” also “rendering of a text from one language to another,” from Old French translacion “translation” of text, also of the bones of a saint, etc. (12c.) or directly from Latin translationem (nominative translatio) “a carrying across, removal, transporting; transfer of meaning,” noun of action from past participle stem of transferre.
- According to Nida (1969: 12) and Taber in The Theory and Practice of Translation, “Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source-language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style”.
- According to Catford (1978: 20) “Translation is the replacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL).”
- According to Larson (1984: 3) “Translation is transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. This is done by going from the form of the first language to the form of a second language by way of semantic structure. It is meaning which is being transferred and must be held constant.”
- According to Newmark (1988: 5): “Translation is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text.”
- According to Hawkes (in Basnett-McGuire,1991:13) “Translation involves the transfer of ‘meaning’ contained in one set of language signs into another set of language through competent use of the dictionary and grammar, the process involves a whole set of extralinguistic criteria also.”
- According to Sperber and Wilson in Bell (1991:6) “Translation is the replacement of a representation of a text in one language by a representation of an equivalent text in a second language.”
- According to Toury (in James, 2000) “Translation is a kind of activity which inevitably involves at least two languages and two cultural traditions.”
- According to Steiner (in Choliludin, 2006: 5): “Translation can be seen as (co) generation of texts under specific constraints that is relative stability of some situational factors and, therefore, register, and classically, change of language and (context of) culture.”
3. The process of translation can be defined as the activity of translation. The translation process usually is used by a translator as a guide in translating text from the source language into the target language.
The process of translation consists of three steps, analyze texts of source language, transfer, restructuring.
4. What is the difference between Translation and Interpreting? Many people use the terms interchangeably, which only increases the confusion, when in reality they are two distinct things that don’t need to be confusing at all.
The single easiest way to explain their differences is that translation involves written material between more than one language and interpreting involves spoken content between multiple languages.
- Adjective: accurate, correct, exact | approximate, free, rough | direct, literal, straight, word-for-word | English, Japanese, etc. | simultaneous There will be simultaneous translation in English and Chinese. | automatic, machine advances in machine translation
- Verb + translation: do, make She tried making her own translation of the sign without consulting a dictionary. | work on | read | survive The poems do not survive the translation into English. | lose sth in The irony is lost in translation.
- Translation + verb: read The translation of the Latin motto reads ‘Not for oneself, but for others’.
- Translation + noun: process | service, work | facilities | exercise | equivalent
- Prep.: for translation Each unit of the course ends with sentences for translation. | in translation I read the book in translation, not in the original Norwegian. | translation into Simultaneous translation into English is available to delegates.
6. Cultural Interrelation: We can mention the movies Lost in Translation (2003) directed by Sofia Coppola and Inglourious Basterds (2009) directed by Quetin Tarantino.
S: 1. OED – http://www.goo.gl/QeXPCL (last access: 18 January 2018). 2. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3aec/c00443a43604d55b44a8eb0ca82adacc0d37.pdf (last access: 18 January 2018); http://www.academia.edu/9584592/Definitions_of_Translation (last access: 18 January 2018). 3. https://muawanah66.wordpress.com/2012/04/30/translation-definition-kinds-of-translation-and-equivalence/ (last access: 18 January 2018). 4. http://www.languagescientific.com/what-is-the-difference-between-translation-and-interpreting/ (last access: 18 January 2018). 5. Ozdic – http://www.goo.gl/ckq6Ec (last access: 10 February 2018). 6. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sU0oZsqeG_s (last access: 14 February 2018); The Guardian – http://www.goo.gl/DRDdQT (last access: 14 February 2018).