S: http://highschoolbiology.otago.ac.nz/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=127&Itemid=79 (last access: 13 December 2013); http://www.jstor.org/stable/28889?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents (last access: 1 September 2015), STEDMAN.
N: 1. Transgenesis is the process of inserting a gene from one source into a living organism that would not normally contain it. 2. The gene may be transfered from within the same species (sometimes known as cisgenesis) or come from another species entirely.
3. Many, but not all genetically modified organisms are transgenic- transgenesis involves a gene being transferred (transgene). Other ways to create GM organisms include knocking out genes, and altering existing genes.
4. No matter what species you are making transgenic the gene must be isolated and amplified, using gene cloning. The gene is then added into a vector designed to best introduce it into the target.
5. To create a transgenic micro-organism, the vector can be easily introduced using transformation. You have probably already studied transgenic microorganisms- some examples are insulin producing bacteria and bacteria and yeasts that produce vaccines.
6. Transgenic animals and plants are harder to create and generally meet with more public controversy.
7. The transfer of genetic material from one organism to another. Source 2, fiche 1, Anglais, Définition 1 – transgenesis
8. We determined the expression pattern of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) in the development of the mouse embryo using in situ hybridization and transgenesis. To define the sequences regulating TIMP expression, we generated transgenic mice that expressed the Escherichia coli beta – galactosidase gene under control of a 5′ region of the mouse TIMP gene containing -2158 to -58 by upstream of the initiator ATG.
N: 1 to 6. http://highschoolbiology.otago.ac.nz/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=127&Itemid=79 (last access: 13 December 2013). 7 & 8. TERMIUM PLUS.