S: PubMed Health – http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0009576/ (last access: 7 December 2013); http://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/osteoarthritis/ (last access: 18 January 2016).
N: 1. rheumatoid arthritis, chronic, frequently progressive disease in which inflammatory changes occur throughout the connective tissues of the body. Inflammation and thickening of the synovial membranes (the sacs holding the fluid that lubricates the joints) cause irreversible damage to the joint capsule and the articular (joint) cartilage as these structures are replaced by scarlike tissue called pannus.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis is about three times as common in women as in men and afflicts about 1 percent of the adult population in the developed nations; it is much less common than osteoarthritis, which is associated with aging. It primarily affects the middle-aged. (Children are affected by a similar disorder called juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.)
3. Rheumatoid arthritis usually first attacks joints of the hands and feet symmetrically before progressing to the wrists, knees, or shoulders; the onset of the disorder is gradual. Pain and stiffness in one or more small joints are usually followed by swelling and heat and are accompanied by muscle pain that may become worse, persist for weeks or months, or subside. Joint pain is not always proportionate to the amount of swelling and warmth generated.
4. A chronic systemic disease primarily of the joints, usually polyarticular, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures and by atrophy and rarefaction of the bones. In late stages deformity and ankylosis develop.
5. Cultural Interrelation: Renoir (1841-1919), the famous 19th century French artist is known for his impressionist paintings. Though his first bout with rheumatoid arthritis struck around 1898, he continued to paint and create artwork his entire life. His RA was severe and crippling, but he found creative ways to paint despite his pain and deformed hands.
S: 1 to 3. EncBrit – http://global.britannica.com/science/rheumatoid-arthritis (last access: 31 July 2015). 4. TERMIUM PLUS (last access: 7 December 2013). 5. http://www.healthcentral.com/rheumatoid-arthritis/cf/slideshows/10-celebrities-with-rheumatoid-arthritis#slide=7 (last access: 5 November 2016).
SYN: 1. arthritis deformans. 2. RA, arthritis deformans, arthritis nodosa, nodose rheumatism, rheumatoid polyarthritis.
S: 1. TERMIUM PLUS (last access: 7 December 2013). 2. GDT (last access: 7 December 2013).