GC: n

S: HECARE – https://bit.ly/2Kowb99 (last access: 21 November 2018); WHO – https://bit.ly/2DAtSyv (last access: 21 November 2018).

N: 1. c. 1300, “woman assisting,” literally “woman who is ‘with’ ” (the mother at birth), from Middle English mid “with” + wif “woman”. Cognate with German Beifrau.
2. A midwife is a trained health professional who helps healthy women during labor, delivery, and after the birth of their babies.
3. In line with the growing international health workforce crisis, the WHO European Region currently faces serious shortages of well-qualified nurses and midwives.
4. Nurses and midwives must have a solid evidence-based education that enables them to meet the changing needs of a population by working, on their own and in teams with other professionals, along the entire continuum of health and illness. In addition, their work needs systematic evaluation to show its efficiency and effectiveness, and they need to be involved in decision-making for health policy.
5. Midwives can have different levels of training:
-Certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) are registered nurses who have graduated from an accredited nurse-midwifery education program and have passed a national exam. They can practice in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.
-Certified midwives (CMs) are non-nurse midwives who have a bachelor’s degree or higher in a health field, have completed an accredited midwifery education program, and have passed a national exam. Only a few states permit CMs to practice.
-Certified professional midwives (CPMs) are non-nurse midwives who have training and clinical experience in childbirth, including childbirth outside of the hospital, and have passed a national exam. Not all states permit CPMs to practice.
-Direct-Entry Midwife (DEM): an independent individual trained in midwifery through various sources that may include apprenticeship, self-study, a midwifery school, or a college/university program.
-Lay Midwife: an individual who is not certified or licensed as a midwife but has received informal training through self-study or apprenticeship.
6. Cultural Interrelation: We can mention the book: Call the Midwife written by Jennifer Worth in 2012.

S: 1. OED – https://bit.ly/2Fy7gB7 (last access: 21 November 2018). 2. WebMD – https://wb.md/2KmieIJ (last access: 21 November 2018). 3. WHO – http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/Health-systems/nursing-and-midwifery (last access: 21 November 2018). 4. WHO – https://bit.ly/1TVSSDx (last access: 21 November 2018). 5. WebMD- https://wb.md/2KmieIJ (last access: 21 November 2018); AMPA – https://bit.ly/2gI86j9 (last access: 21 November 2018). 6. PRH – https://bit.ly/2AcVmqJ (last access: 21 November 2018).


CR: abortion, afterpains, childbed, childbirth, embryo, fetus, obstetric fistula, pregnancy.