S: http://www.wmo.int/pages/themes/climate/applications_humanitarian.php (last access: 17 July 2016); https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/meteorology.htm (last access: 17 July 2016).
N: 1. “science of the atmosphere, weather forecasting,” 1610s, from French météorologie and directly from Greek meteorologia “treatise on celestial phenomena, discussion of high things,” from meteoron, literally “thing high up”, + -logia “treatment of”.
2. Study of the atmosphere and its phenomena.
3. Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere, atmospheric phenomena, and atmospheric effects on our weather. The atmosphere is the gaseous layer of the physical environment that surrounds a planet. Earth’s atmosphere is roughly 100 to 125 kilometers (65-75 miles) thick. Gravity keeps the atmosphere from expanding much farther.
4. Meteorology is a subdiscipline of the atmospheric sciences, a term that covers all studies of the atmosphere. A subdiscipline is a specialized field of study within a broader subject or discipline. Climatology and aeronomy are also subdisciplines of the atmospheric sciences. Climatology focuses on how atmospheric changes define and alter the world’s climates. Aeronomy is the study of the upper parts of the atmosphere, where unique chemical and physical processes occur. Meteorology focuses on the lower parts of the atmosphere, primarily the troposphere, where most weather takes place.
5. Cultural Interrelation: We can mention the book Atmospheric Disturbances written by Rivka Galchen in 2008 and a meteorological called storm glass, one type of barometer used by Admiral Fitzroy (1805-1865).
Fitzroy, as commander of HMS Beagle, participated in the Darwin Expedition from 1834-1836. In addition to his naval career, Fitzroy did pioneer work in the field of meteorology. The Beagle’s instrumentation for the Darwin Expedition included several chronometers as well as barometers, which Fitzroy used for weather forecasting. The Darwin Expedition also was the first voyage under sailing orders that the Beaufort wind scale be used for wind observations.
S: 1. OED – http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=meteorology (last access: 17 July 2016). 2. METEOTERM – International Meteorological Vocabulary, WMO – No. 182 (last access: 17 July 2016). 3 & 4. http://nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/meteorology/ (last access: 17 July 2016). 5. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/mark-oppenheimer/the-best-meteorology-nove_b_97631.html (last access: 18 July 2016); http://chemistry.about.com/od/weirdscience/a/fitzroy.htm (last access: 18 July 2016).