GC: n

S: NCBI – https://goo.gl/7wvE09 (last access: 2 December 2016); NCSCH – https://goo.gl/SXvJXR (last access: 2 December 2016).

N: 1. The term “hypnosis” comes from the ancient Greek word hypnos, “sleep”, and the suffix -osis, or from hypnoō, “put to sleep”. The words “hypnosis” and “hypnotism” both derive from the term “neuro-hypnotism” (nervous sleep), all of which were coined by the Scottish surgeon James Braid around 1841.
2. Hypnosis is a trancelike state of altered consciousness that resembles sleep but is induced by a person whose suggestions are readily accepted by the subject.
3. Avicenna (980-1037), a Persian Physician, documented the characteristics of the “trance”(Hypnotic Trance) state in 1027. At that time hypnosis as a medical treatment was seldom used until the German Doctor, Franz Mesmer, reintroduced it in the 18th Century
Frans Mesmer (1734–1815) believed that there is a magnetic force or “fluid” within the universe that influences the health of the human body. He experimented with magnets to impact this field in order to produce healing. By around 1774, he had concluded that the same effect could be created by passing the hands in front of the subject’s body, later referred to as making “Mesmeric passes.” The word “mesmerize”, formed from the last name of Franz Mesmer, was intentionally used to separate practitioners of mesmerism from the various “fluid” and “magnetic” theories included within the label “magnetism”.
4. There are numerous applications for hypnosis across multiple fields of interest including medical and psychotherapeutic uses, military uses, self-improvement, and entertainment. It has also been used in forensics, sports, education, physical therapy and rehabilitation.
5. Hypnosis refers both to the process and the state of extreme suggestibility in the patient.
Hypnosis is a state where the patient will be very ready to accept new patterns of behaviour or answer questions about his personal life.
6. Cultural interrelation: When Sigmund Freud studied with Charcot in 1885, he was very impressed by the therapeutic potential of hypnosis for neurotic disorders. On his return to Vienna he used it to induce in states of hypnosis his neurotic patient to recall disturbing events that they had apparently forgotten. As he began to develop his system of psychoanalysis, the difficulty he encountered in hypnotizing some patients led Freud to discard hypnosis in favour of free association.

S: 1. IHR – https://goo.gl/RD3RYd (last access: 2 December 2016). 2. MW – https://goo.gl/3Uyb8b (last access: 2 December 2016). 3 to 5. IHR – https://goo.gl/RD3RYd (last access: 2 December 2016). 6. FP – https://goo.gl/g5Wj4N (last access: 2 December 2016).


CR: somnambulism