S: OMIM – http://www.omim.org/entry/137580 (last access: 1 September 2015); http://www.tsa-usa.org/Medical/whatists.html (last access: 1 September 2015); NIH – https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000733.htm (last access: 1 September 2015).
N: 1. Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder characterized by repetitive, stereotyped, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics. The disorder is named for Dr. Georges Gilles de la Tourette, the pioneering French neurologist who in 1885 first described the condition in an 86-year-old French noblewoman.
2. The early symptoms of TS are typically noticed first in childhood, with the average onset between the ages of 3 and 9 years. TS occurs in people from all ethnic groups; males are affected about three to four times more often than females. It is estimated that 200,000 Americans have the most severe form of TS, and as many as one in 100 exhibit milder and less complex symptoms such as chronic motor or vocal tics. Although TS can be a chronic condition with symptoms lasting a lifetime, most people with the condition experience their worst tic symptoms in their early teens, with improvement occurring in the late teens and continuing into adulthood.
3. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
4. Cultural Interrelation: We can mention the movie Front of the class (2008) directed by Peter Werner.
S: 1 & 2. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/tourette/detail_tourette.htm (last access: 31 August 2015). 3. TERMIUM PLUS (last access: 31 August 2015). 4. http://www.classperformance.com/ (last access: 31 August 2015).
SYN: 1. Tourette syndrome. 2. Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome, Gilles de la Tourette’s disease, Gilles de la Tourette’s disorder, Tourette’s disease, Tourette’s syndrome, Guinon’s disease.
S: 1. NIH – http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/tourette/detail_tourette.htm (last access: 31 August 2015); http://www.tourette.org.au/ (last access: 31 August 2015). 2. GDT – http://www.granddictionnaire.com/ficheOqlf.aspx?Id_Fiche=8361050 (last access: 31 August 2015).