S: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/865191-overview (last access: 28 February 2016); http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/conditions/ear-nose-and-throat/a147/dysphonia-voice-disorder/ (last access: 28 February 2016); http://www.healthcentral.com/encyclopedia/hc/dysphonia-3168418/ (last access: 28 February 2016).
N: 1. From Greek, dys + phone, voice.
2. Impairment of phonation which may result from disordered function of the vocal cords or from respiratory dysfunction.
3. In international terminology, disorders of the voice are described as dysphonia. Depending on the underlying cause, the various types of dysphonia are subdivided by the specifying adjective. Thus, a vocal disorder stemming from paralysis of the larynx is a paralytic dysphonia; injury (trauma) of the larynx may produce traumatic dysphonia.
4. Hoarseness refers to any abnormal voice (also known as dysphonia), but all hoarse voices do not sound alike. Characteristics that can be seen in some hoarse voices include: breathiness (as in the classic Marilyn Monroe voice), roughness, decreased loudness, inability to project the voice, strain, or the complete lack of a voice (aphonia). Many of these terms are subjective and can be caused by many different conditions, including the ones described below.
S: 1. http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/dysphonia – Mosby’s Medical Dictionary (last access: 28 February 2016). 2. TERMIUM PLUS – http://goo.gl/Ro0Lnt (last access: 28 February 2016). 3. EncBrit – http://global.britannica.com/topic/dysphonia (last access: 28 February 2016). 4. http://ucneurofunctionalcenter.com/types-of-neurosensory-disorders/voice-disorders/ (last access: 28 February 2016).